In the Old Testament, the word “star” is used figuratively to refer to a ruler (Num. 24:17). In the New Testament, the term “Morning Star” is used metaphorically of Jesus Christ: “I, Jesus, have sent my angel to give you this testimony for the churches. I am the Root and the Offspring of David, and the bright Morning Star” (Rev. 22:16 NIV). According to Peter, believers should pay attention to the message of Scripture because it is “a light shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises” (2 Pet. 1:19).
The morning star appears in the sky before the sun rises at daybreak. Paul wrote that the finalization of our salvation is near because “The night is nearly over; the day is almost here” (Rom. 13:12). This means that the present age is like a night that is darkened by sin. We know that Christ will come to rapture believers to heaven at the end of this age (1 Th. 4:13-18) and then judge the sinful world before reigning over all. After God’s judgment of sin, there will be no more darkness (Rev. 21:25-27; 22:5), as darkness is a symbol of sin (Jn. 3:19).
In the second coming, Christ is pictured as the morning star that precedes the day. This was promised to the believers at Thyatira: “I will also give them the morning star” (Rev. 2:28). It is clear that in these three instances, the morning star is a metaphor for Jesus Christ. This illustration is not surprising as Christ’s incarnation was likened to a sunrise (Is. 9:2; Lk. 1:78-79).
The only other passage of the Bible that includes the term “morning star” is Isaiah 14:12. Here is how different versions translate it.
“How you have fallen from heaven, O morning star, son of the dawn! You have been cast down to the earth, you who once laid low the nations!” (NIV)
“How you are fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! How you are cut down to the ground, you who weakened the nations!” (NKJV)
“How you have fallen from heaven, O star of the morning, son of the dawn! You have been cut down to the earth, you who weakened the nations!” (NASB)
The context of this verse is God’s judgment on the king of Babylon; it was part of a taunt sung by the Israelites (Isa. 14:3). This is the only place in Scripture where the Hebrew word heylel appears; it has been interpreted as “shining one” or “star of the morning.” Isaiah seems to be using this metaphor of a bright light, though not the greatest light, to illustrate the apparent power and boastfulness of the Babylonian king which then faded.
When the Old Testament was translated into Latin in 405 AD, heylel was translated as “lucifer” – a synonym for “morning star.” Today the word “lucifer” has two meanings: “the planet Venus, the morning star” (the next brightest object in the sky after the sun and moon) and a name of Satan. Both of these interpretations were mentioned in the 1611 (KJV) translation of Isaiah 14:12.
Although the primary context of the passage is about a king of Babylon, in Isaiah 14:12-17, the focus seems to move to the fall of the one who energized the king of Babylon, Satan (14:13-14), and represents supreme arrogance, pride and conceit, which were Satan’s sins (1 Tim. 3:6). In this interpretation, the metaphor, the “morning star” is applied to Satan. But as we have seen, this title is also used of Christ (Rev. 22:16). This is not inconsistent because the term “lion” is also applied to both Satan and Christ (1 Pet. 5:8; Rev. 5:5). This possible association of the king of Babylon with Satan seems to be the origin of “Lucifer” as a term for Satan.
The “morning star” is a metaphor in Scripture applied to Jesus, the king of Babylon and maybe Satan. This is appropriate because they either have been, are or will be rulers. The reign of the king of Babylon is past; Satan’s is a doomed present (Rev. 20:7-10); Christ’s will be supreme and eternal (1 Cor. 15:24-27).
Published, July 2009