Jesus is the reference point of time
Today is the first day of 2016 CE, where “CE” means “Common Era”. Dates before 2016 years ago are designated as BCE (Before Common Era). The use of CE and BCE was introduced by Jewish academics in the mid-19th century. These terms were intended to replace AD and BC, which stood for the Medieval Latin term “Anno Domini” (which means “in the year of the Lord”) and “Before Christ”.
God designed the solar system to provide measures for days and years (Gen. 1:14). One day corresponds to one rotation of the earth and one year to one revolution of the earth around the sun. The Gregorian calendar is based on the solar year.
As the Hebrew calendar was a lunar calendar, extra months were added occasionally to synchronize it with the solar calendar. Otherwise, the months aren’t linked with the seasons and drift each solar year by 11-12 days. So seven lunar months need to be added over each 19 years.
The most common mention of time in the Bible is the age in years of a person since their birth. For example, “So Joseph died, being 110 years old” (Gen. 50:26NIV).
Time was also measured as the period in years after a significant event. For example:
“Now the length of time the Israelite people lived in Egypt was 430 years (Ex. 12:40).
“In the 40th year (since leaving Egypt), on the first day of the eleventh month, Moses spoke to the people of Israel” (Dt. 1:3).
“In the 480th year after the people of Israel came out of the land of Egypt, in the 4th year of Solomon’s reign over Israel, in the month of Ziv, the 2nd month, he began to build the temple of the Lord” (1 Ki. 6:1).
“Then the work on the house of God that is in Jerusalem stopped, and it ceased until the 2nd year of the reign of Darius king of Persia” (Ezra 4:24).
“In the 25th year of our exile” (Ezek. 40:1).
Haggai’s prophecy is dated as “In the 2nd year of King Darius” (Hag. 1:1).
Time can also be measured as the period in years before a significant event. For example,
Amos’s vision is dated as “two years before the earthquake, when Uzziah was king of Judah” (Amos 1:1).
The Latin term “Anno Mundi” means “in the year of the world”. This dating system uses the creation of the world as its reference point in time. The Old Testament contains enough information so that we can calculate AM dates directly. This method relies on the chrono-genealogies (Gen. 5:3-32; 11:10-26) and other chronological information in the Biblical text (Ex. 12:40-41; 1 Ki. 6:1).
Such a calculation using the Hebrew Masoretic text indicates that the flood was in AM 1656, the Israelites were in Egypt AM 2298-2728, and the temple was started in AM 3208. It’s difficult to convert AM dates to BCE. Although Solomon’s temple was destroyed in 586-587 BC, this is difficult to date in AM. But if we assume that the temple was started in 967 BCE. This gives creation in 4175 BCE, the flood in 2519 BCE, and the Israelites in Egypt in 1877-1447 BCE. Due to the inherent uncertainty in such calculations, this indicates that the world was created around 4200 BCE and the flood occurred around 2500 BCE.
The use of AD was adopted in the 6th century CE by a Christian monk by the name of Dionysius Exiguus. For him, Jesus was the reference point or the focal point of time. Numbering years in this manner became more widespread with its usage by Bede in England in 731. Bede also introduced the practice of dating years before the supposed year of birth of Jesus, and the practice of not using a year zero. In this system, the year 1 BC is followed by the year AD 1, so there is no year zero in the Dionysius-Bede calendar (maybe because there was no Roman numeral for zero). So a new century begins in a year which has “01” as the final digits and a new millennia ends in “001”. The AD system spread when the Emperor Charlemagne adopted it for dating acts of government throughout Europe.
Around AD 525 a monk Dionysius Exiguus was asked by Pope John 1 to determine future dates for the celebration of Easter. In his Easter table Dionysius changed the reference point of time from the accession of the Emperor Diocletian in 284 CE (Anno Diocletiani), to the assumed birth of Christ in 1 CE, because he didn’t wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. This was the last major persecution against Christians in the Roman Empire during 303-311 CE, but after 324 CE Christianity became the empire’s preferred religion under its first Christian emperor Constantine.
Dionysius calculated that Christ was born 753 years after the founding of Rome as a city. Year AD 1 was equivalent to the 754th year of Rome as a city. This shows the significant influence of Christianity on Western society at that time. It was the official religion of the Roman Empire.
Dionysius took the main dividing point of world history to be the birth of Christ. So every time we see or write the numerals of a year, these represent the number of years since Christ’s birth. Scholars subsequently discovered that Jesus was actually born around the year we label as 5 BC.
All civilizations developed schemes for numbering years, which were often based on the reign of the current ruler. The Egyptians did this since the third millennium BCE. In the first century BCE, the Romans adopted the founding of the city of Rome (AUC) in 753 BCE as their reference point of time. The Muslims use a lunar calendar with CE 622 as the reference point.
Astronomers have solved the problem of the “missing year 0” in the Dionysius-Bede calendar by making room for a year 0. Astronomical year numbering uses a number without a prefix or suffix. It defines the year before year 1 to be year 0 and the year x BCE is –(x-1). ISO 8601 is an international standard for the exchange of date and time-related data. Years are designated by a four-digit number similar to Astronomical year numbering. With 1 BCE being 0000 and 2 BCE being -0001 etc.
So, although BC and AD has been replaced, Jesus is still the reference point for measuring time. He is the reason we have BCE and CE. Although the references to “Christ” and “Lord” have been dropped, the numbers have been retained. And these numbers represent the number of years before or after Christ was on earth.
In this way, the chronology of world history is like the Bible. Both are divided into two eras, with the transition from the older to the newer occurring when Christ was on earth. Jesus Christ is central to both time and to history.
Is Jesus central or peripheral in your life? He came to reconcile us to God. He did His part by dying for us and then rising victoriously back to life. Have you done your part by accepting His gift?
Jesus came to earth about 2016 years ago and He promised to return to take us to be with Him forever (1 Th. 4:13-18). Are you ready to meet Him?
Written, January 2016
Jesus spans time and history
On January 1 we celebrate the beginning of a new year. One of the titles of God and Jesus Christ is “the Alpha and the Omega”, which reminds me of beginnings and endings (Rev. 1:8; 21:6; 22:13NIV). As alpha is the first letter of the Greek alphabet and omega is the last, this title means “first and last” or “beginning and end” and everything in between. It signifies the whole alphabet, “A to Z”, or completeness. An equivalent analogy in time would be “24/7” with regard to a week or “1 January to 31 December” with regard to a year. So “Alpha and Omega” is a poetic way to say that God and Jesus are eternal.
This interpretation is confirmed by the related titles which Jesus used to refer to Himself–“the first and the last” (Rev. 1:17; 2:8; 22:13) and “the beginning and the end” (Rev. 21:6; 22:13). This truth is introduced in the Old Testament where God is said to be with the first generation of mankind and with the last and the Creator and Sustainer of the universe (Is. 41:4; 48:12-13). In this regard He is unique (Is. 44:6). He exists in the distant past, the present and the distant future as the One “who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty” (Rev. 1:8). He alone knows everything, including the future.
Jesus spans all time and all history. He was there at the very beginning of time and history and He will be there at the end of time and history. When all of God’s purposes on earth are achieved and His salvation is completed, Jesus will say “It is done” (Rev. 21:6). This is consistent with the fact that He created time, He controls history and He is eternal.
When John was afraid, being exiled on the isle of Patmos, Jesus said to him: “Do not be afraid. I am the First and the Last. I am the Living One; I was dead, and now look, I am alive for ever and ever! And I hold the keys of death and Hades” (Rev. 1:17-18). He was assured that his destiny was controlled by the living God. Later Jesus encouraged John by the prospect of rewards for faithful service: “Look, I am coming soon! My reward is with me, and I will give to each person according to what they have done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End” (Rev. 22:12-13).
Jesus is also described as “the pioneer and perfecter of faith” (Heb. 12:2), which also conveys a sense of beginning and ending. Besides being the founder and originator of the Christian faith, He also finished His work of salvation and is a perfect example of the life a faith.
As we face the end of one year and the beginning of another let’s remember that Jesus Christ is the Alpha and the Omega. Whatever He says in the Bible about the past, present and the future is trustworthy. Let’s trust Him and allow Him to reign in our lives.
Written, January 2012
At the start of a new year, people often reflect on the past and look ahead to the future. In this article we look at the promise of the “new covenant”, which was given in the past and looks ahead to the future.
A covenant is an agreement or a promise between individuals or groups of people. The first covenant, or the old covenant, was the law that was given to the Children of Israel via Moses at Mt Sinai. It promised blessing for obedience but threatened death for disobedience. The law was a covenant of works. But because it depended on people’s obedience, it could not produce righteousness. The new covenant was given so that people would become conscious of their sin (Rom. 3:20; 7:7). It showed them they could not keep it, so they would then be ready to receive a Savior.
The phrase “new covenant” is mentioned first in Jeremiah 31:31-34, which is quoted in Hebrews 8:8-13.
“This is the covenant I will establish with the people of Israel after that time, declares the Lord. I will put my laws in their minds and write them on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be my people. No longer will they teach their neighbor, or say to one another, ‘Know the Lord,’ because they will all know me, from the least of them to the greatest. For I will forgive their wickedness and will remember their sins no more” (Heb. 8:10-12NIV).
This covenant was “new” (the Greek word commonly used meant “unique”) because:
- It depends on God, not people (“I will”, v. 10, 12); being unconditional, whereas the law was conditional on people’s obedience (v.9); and emphasises what God will do, not what people must do.
- God’s laws will be in their minds and on their hearts (v.10a), so that everyone will know the Lord and have a close relationship with Him (v.10b, 11).
- People receive forgiveness of sins and an eternal inheritance (v.12; Heb. 9:15).
The new covenant was announced at a low time of Israel’s history; the nation had largely turned from God to idolatry. At this time God used prophets to announce that the Jewish people would be captured by the Babylonians and scattered amongst other nations but afterwards they would be restored to their land of Canaan. The new covenant is characterised by everlasting peace and prosperity (Is. 54:9-10; 55:3-13; 59:20-21; 61:1-8; Jer. 50:4-5; Ezek. 16:60-63; 34:25-31; 37:15-28; Hos. 2:14-23). At this time the Jewish people will prosper in their own land under Christ’s rule.
When we look at the Old Testament references, we see that the blessings of the new covenant are both physical and spiritual. They are “better promises” than the old covenant (Heb. 8:6).
The promise of the new covenant was given to the Jews (Heb. 8:8) and will be fulfilled when the Lord comes to set up the Millennial kingdom (Rev. 20:2,4). “I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, so that you may not be conceited: Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in, and in this way all Israel will be saved” (Rom. 11:25-26a). The mystery (a new revelation) is that the largely Gentile church must first be gathered in the rapture, before the spiritual hardness of Israel is healed when a Jewish remnant will be saved out of the coming great tribulation to live in God’s kingdom on earth.
Lessons for us
What has this promise, given to the Jews, got to do with us today? Because the Jews rejected the Messiah, the gospel was offered to the Gentiles. The Gentile church was another mystery that was revealed to Paul and he used the term “new covenant” to describe the gospel of God’s grace (2 Cor. 3:6).
In the Lord’s Supper, Jesus said that the cup of wine represented “the new covenant in my blood” (1 Cor. 11:25). The death of Christ forms the basis of spiritual blessings for the Church as well as the covenantal physical and spiritual blessings promised to the nation of Israel. Christ was a mediator for both Old Testament and New Testament believers and for those who will believe and enter the Millennial kingdom. In the meantime, some of the blessings of the new covenant are enjoyed by all believers— the spiritual blessings, not the physical ones. For example, we have forgiveness of sins, a close relationship with the Lord and the indwelling Holy Spirit
In the future Israel will be blessed under the rule of the Lord in the Millennium (Hos. 3:5); while believers will reign with Him over the universe (Eph. 1:22-23). What wonderful promises!
Written, January 2009
New Year’s day is celebrated in Sydney, Australia with a magnificent fireworks display. In Old Testament times the Jews celebrated the New Year as well. They had two calendars, a religious one and a civil one, that were six months apart – similar to our financial year and calendar year. The first month of the religious calendar, Nissan, is in the spring (Northern Hemisphere) when Passover is celebrated. However, the Jewish new Year is in Tishri, the seventh month of the religious calendar, in autumn, when the Jewish new Year festival, Rosh Hashanah is observed. “Rosh Hashanah” means “first of the year.”
In Biblical times this day was called the Festival of Trumpets and ram’s horns were blown, no work was done and special sacrifices were offered to the Lord (Lev. 23:23-25; Num. 29:1-6). The trumpets made a joyful noise on the new year and the Jews looked ahead committing the nation to God for the coming year. Most other Jewish festivals looked back to God’s deliverance (Passover, Unleavened Bread, Tabernacles), to God’s provision (Firstfruits, Pentecost), and to atone for their sins (Day of Atonement).
We look ahead
Christians also look back and look ahead. For example, in the Lord’s supper we look back to the crucifixion, but we only do this “until He comes”, then we look ahead. Let’s see at what Paul had to say about this topic.
In Philippians 3:12-15 (TNIV) he wrote “… I press on to take hold of that for which Christ Jesus took hold of me. Brothers and sisters, I do not consider myself yet to have taken hold of it. But one thing I do: Forgetting what is behind and straining toward what is ahead, I press on toward the goal to win the prize for which God has called me heavenward in Christ Jesus. All of us, then, who are mature should take such a view of things.”
Just before these verses, in Philippians 3:4-6, Paul listed his impeccable heritage and personal achievements such as, “confidence in the flesh … circumcised … a Hebrew of Hebrews … a Pharisee … persecuting the Church … faultless.” He once thought these things were valuable, but after being saved he considered them worthless compared with the infinite value of knowing Jesus Christ as Lord. Instead of living for these things, he wanted to live as Jesus lived. He was willing to suffer like Jesus and to be a martyr. Then he looked ahead, repeating the phrase “I press on”. And he gave two reasons for pressing on.
Paul pressed on
First, “I press on to take hold of that for which Christ Jesus took hold of me” (v.12). When did Christ take hold of Paul? When He confronted him on the road to Damascus. On this occasion the Lord said to a man named Ananias, “This man is My chosen instrument to proclaim My name to the Gentiles and their kings and to the people of Israel. I will show him how much he must suffer for My name.” (Acts 9:15-16). Also, Paul was to be an example of what Christ can do in a person’s life. He pressed on to fulfil the purpose for which he was saved. And his was a lifetime mission, that’s why Paul wrote to the Philippians, “I do not consider myself yet to have taken hold of it” (v.13).
Second, Paul said ” I press on toward the goal to win the prize for which God has called me heavenward in Christ Jesus” (v.14). Like a runner in a race, Paul’s goal was to finish the race of life and receive the crown of righteousness at the Judgement Seat of Christ and to enjoy the blessings of heaven (2 Tim. 4:8). The spiritual race is a lifetime marathon! There is no retirement in the spiritual life!
Besides this he said, “Forgetting what is behind” (v.13), looking ahead and not turning back to the past. It’s hard to walk or run if you are looking back! Paul wanted to advance, not retreat. In fact he was “straining toward what is ahead” (v.13) – looking ahead and moving ahead!
God looks ahead
God also looks ahead. For example, before the tenth plague God instructed the Israelites to ask their Egyptian neighbors for articles of silver and gold and take these on their exodus or departure (Ex. 11:2). What was the purpose of this? Wouldn’t these just add to the weight of their luggage on the long journey? He was looking ahead to the building of the tabernacle, and providing them with the materials they would need in the future, even though they had no idea at the time what they would need (Ex. 25:1-8).
So God is always looking ahead. Whatever you are going through now may just be God preparing you for tomorrow. It may be God giving you the tools that you will use years later. We don’t know what is ahead. But let’s remember that God has prepared us for it, and He causes everything to work together for our good (Rom. 8:28).
In the coming year, let’s be like Paul and “press on” to fulfil the lifetime purpose for which God has called us, and continue to use our abilities and talents for Him. Let’s resolve this new year to press on towards the finish of the race of life, not looking back, but looking ahead and moving ahead with the Lord.
Published, January 2012
At the “real” start of the third millennium
This is the first month of a new year and of a new millennium. As the first year was 1 A.D., so 1000 A.D. was the last year of the first millennium. Likewise, the last year of the second millennium was 2000 A.D., which means that 2001 is the first year of the third millennium. So the celebrations that were held twelve months ago should have been called the beginning of the 2000s, not the beginning of the third millennium, which actually begins this month.
Although one day, month or year is not necessarily more important than another (Rom. 14:5), we all like to celebrate important dates such as birthdays and wedding anniversaries. These are milestones that remind us of significant events along the road of life. Let’s look at some important events that God wants us to remember and celebrate.
Remember the Creator
After the universe was created in six days the Bible says, “By the seventh day God had finished the work He had been doing; so on the seventh day He rested from all His work. And God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it He rested from all the work of creating that He had done” (Gen 2:2-3 NIV). This is not the rest that follows weariness, but the rest of satisfaction and completion of a job well done (Gen. 1:31).
The Sabbath was to be observed by the Israelites as a day of rest from everyday work, as a reminder of their God who rested after His work of creation (Ex. 31:14-17). The principle of one day’s rest in seven was established in Old Testament times for the benefit of individuals, families, employees and even animals (Ex. 20:10; Mk. 2:27). Its establishment in the account of creation implies that it is meant for everyone, not just for Israel.
It is said that God “blessed the seventh day and made it holy” (Gen. 2:3; Ex. 20:11). This indicates two purposes for the Sabbath rest –as a gift (or blessing) from God for the well-being of humanity, and a special (or holy) day for God. Besides physical rest, it also means remembering the Creator and praising God for His provision for us. He had given us life and time, and on this day we are to give some time back to Him.
So, the Sabbath rest is God’s milestone pointing out His goodness to everyone as their Creator as we pause for a regular weekly break from work. Remember, the wisest man that ever lived said, “Remember your Creator in the days of your youth” (Eccl. 12:1). Creation reveals the Creator’s eternal power and divine nature .(Rom. 1:20). But this is less evident when life becomes more troublesome and less enjoyable. Unfortunately, those who reject this revelation, choose to worship idols instead of “the God who made the world and everything in it” (Rom. 1:23,25; Acts 17:24).
Remember the Redeemer
The Israelites were given a second reason for observing the Sabbath day: “Remember that you were slaves in Egypt and that the LORD your God brought you out of there with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm” (Dt. 5:15). It was a weekly reminder of their miraculous deliverance from slavery in Egypt. This act of God is called “redemption,” which means “buying back” or “ransoming from captivity.” Christ was a “redeemer” in that by His sacrificial death He paid the ransom for our sinfulness and so delivered us from slavery to sin and its penalty (Eph. 1:7).
So, the Sabbath is also God’s milestone pointing out His mercy toward His chosen people as their redeemer. As the Sabbath rest included employees, the Israelites were to show a loving concern to others (Dt. 5:14). This was confirmed when Christ healed the man with a shrivelled hand on the Sabbath (Mk. 3:1-5).
Jesus said that He was Lord of the Sabbath and demonstrated this as the Redeemer of the world (Mt. 12:8; Lk. 4:16-21). The Sabbath was “a shadow of the things that were to come; the reality, however, is found in. Christ” (Col. 2:17). After the day of Pentecost, it was more important to remember God’s great salvation for mankind’s sins than to remember the deliverance of the Jews from Egypt. Consequently, the early Christians met for worship and the collection of monetary gifts on the first day of the week in memory of Christ’s resurrection (Acts 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:1-2). Christian worship on Sunday replaced Jewish observance of the Sabbath. It is interesting to note that according to Leviticus 23:15, the day of Pentecost (Acts. 2:1) may have been on the first day of the week. However, some authorities state that the Pharisees believed that the Sabbath referred to here is the holy day of Passover which fell on a different day each year.
The Jews also celebrated their release from slavery in the first month of each year. As God’s people in Old Testament times, they were given a series of annual religious festivals by God. These festivals commemorated occasions when God had reached out in power to intervene for the Jews or had provided for them in a time of distress. It reminded them of God’s presence and activity among them.
The first and most important of the festivals was the Passover, which was celebrated in the first month of the religious year (Ex. 12:1-30; Lev. 23:4-8). The Hebrew calendar is based on the 29.5 day lunar cycle. Their first month commenced after the spring equinox and is equivalent to March/April inour calendar. As their months began at new moon and the Passover began on the fourteenth of the month, the Passover corresponded with a full moon. Easter is its direct equivalent in our calendar, being the Sunday after the first full moon on/after March 21.
The Passover corresponded with the beginning of the grain harvest (Dt. 16:9) and it commemorated the deliverance and exodus of the Jews from slavery in Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Neferhotep 1 (Ex. 12). This was achieved in a miraculous way through the death of a lamb and smearing the lamb’s blood on their door frames. The plague of death to all the first-born sons in Egypt “passed over” the Jewish households with the sign on the door frames. Soon afterwards the Egyptians urged the Jews to leave their country.
Like the Sabbath, these religious festivals were said to be “a shadow of the things that were to come; the reality, however, is found in Christ” (Col. 2:17). Paul referred to Christ as “our Passover Lamb” (1 Cor. 5:7). So the Passover was an illustration of Christ’s sacrifice for us. As the death of the Passover lamb saved the Jews from death, so Christ’s death can save us from the punishment of eternal death in hell. The similarity is emphasized by the fact that Jesus was crucified at the time of the Passover celebration (Jn. 18:28; 19:14).
When Jesus Christ celebrated the Passover with His disciples, He instituted the Lord’s Supper by relating the breaking of bread and the drinking of wine to His coming death (Lk. 22:7-20). His followers were told to do this in His remembrance (1 Cor. 11:2326). Believers are told, “Whenever you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until He comes” (1 Cor. 11:26). So, the annual Passover was replaced by the weekly Lord’s Supper (Acts 20:7).
Now and forever
It’s obvious that God wants us to remember and celebrate His great achievements in creation and redemption. This can be done by a regular weekly break from work and by a regular partaking of the Lord’s Supper. These are two of the most important things we can do this week, month, year and millennium –and they will refresh us physically and spiritually.
Such celebrations are not only for now but are for eternity, as the role of God the Father and the Lord as Creator and Redeemer is the theme of the great future celebration in heaven: “You are worthy, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for You created all things, and by Your will they were created and have their being … You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals, because You were slain, and with Your blood You purchased men for God from every tribe and language and people and nation” (Rev 4:11; 5:9).
Published, January 2001
The word “Christian” means a follower of Christ. The beginning of a new year is a good time to focus on some of the words He spoke – in particular, His first words, His most important words and His last recorded words – and determine how well we are following Him.
His First Words
When He was 12 years old, Jesus stayed behind to talk with the teachers in the temple while His parents headed for home after the festival of the Passover. When they returned and found Him, Mary said, “‘Son, why have you treated us like this? Your father and I have been anxiously searching for you.’ ‘Why were you searching for Me?’ He asked. ‘Didn’t you know I had to be in My Father’s house?’ But they did not understand what He was saying to them. Then He went down to Nazareth with them and was obedient to them. But His mother treasured all these things in her heart. And Jesus grew in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men” (Lk. 2:48-52 NIV).
The two different fathers mentioned in this passage show the two main relationships of His youth. First, He was aware of His unique relationship with God. At 12 years, He was doing God’s business. Of course, that’s why He came to earth. One example of this relationship was that He prayed regularly. Second, He obeyed His parents. They were part of His human family. Later He said, “Whoever does God’s will is My brother and sister and mother” (Mk. 3:35). All believers are part of His spiritual family. One example of this relationship was His compassion for people. He saw them as “sheep without a shepherd” and wanted to care for them like a hen cares for her chicks (Mt. 9:36; 23:37). So, this incident and the Lord’s first recorded words show that His two main relationships were with God and with people.
His Most Important Words
During His ministry, one of the Jewish religious leaders asked Jesus which was the most important commandment. “The most important one,” answered Jesus, “is this: ‘Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one. Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength.’ The second is this: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself. There is no commandment greater than these’” (Mk. 12:29-31).
The Jews had at least 600 laws at this time. When asked which was the most important, Jesus said to put God first and people next. He simplified their complex religious requirements into two relationships – with God and with others. Our priorities should be likewise – God first, people next and selfish things last.
His Last Recorded Words
Before Jesus ascended, the apostles asked Him: “‘Lord, are You at this time going to restore the kingdom to Israel?’ He said to them: ‘It is not for you to know the times or dates the Father has set by His own authority. But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you; and you will be My witnesses … to the ends of the earth.’ After He said this, He was taken up before their very eyes, and a cloud hid Him from their sight” (Acts 1:6-9).
They expected the earthly kingdom to commence, but didn’t know that this wouldn’t happened until after the gospel was taken to the Gentile nations. Instead the Lord promised the Holy Spirit to give them power to witness for Him across the known world. Witnessing is introducing people to God. This mission for the apostles, which is also the Church’s mission, involves the two relationships already mentioned – with God and others. They would no longer have the Lord to guide them physically, but all believers now have the Holy Spirit to guide them spiritually.
Starting today, let’s devote our lives to God’s business – really giving Him top priority, and really loving one another – the essence of Jesus’ most important words.
Published, January 2010
Each new year brings new opportunities and new challenges. Each year is a new year for us; it is not exactly the same as any other year. Some things change and we move into different seasons of life as our age increases.
From earliest times, days, months and years were determined by observations of the sun and moon. The average length of a year according to the earth’s motion around the sun is 365.2422 days. The International Calendar, which is based on the Gregorian Calendar, begins the year on January 1, the day the Roman Senate annually took office. During the Middle Ages, January 1 was given the name “New Year’s Day.” Prior to that time, the year commenced on March 25 or December 25.
The Jewish sacred year (in the Old Testament) began near the spring equinox in the northern hemisphere, and the civil year near the fall (or autumn) equinox. On the first day (Rosh Hashanah) of the civil year (according to Judaism today) they celebrated the creation of the world; this is the Feast of Trumpets (Lev. 23:23-25). The Jewish New Year’s Day in 2007 is sunset September 12, 2007 to sunset September 13, 2007.
As the Islamic calendar is about 11 days shorter than the Gregorian calendar, the date of the beginning of the year changes by 11 days each year, and the cycle of twelve lunar months regresses through the seasons over a period of about 33 years. This means that important Muslim festivals, which always fall in the same month Hijri, may occur in different seasons over time. Also, over 33 years, their New Year’s Day moves steadily across all the seasons of the year.
The Chinese New Year starts on the second new moon after the winter solstice, which ranges between January 21 and February 21. For example, in 2007, the Chinese year begins on February 18.
It’s good to be able to see the big picture of what’s happening in our world. According to the Bible the big picture is:
Creation – In the beginning of time, God created the heavens and the earth and all that is in them.
Fall Into Sin – Adam and Eve’s disobedience caused the creation to become cursed. Life now involves struggles and suffering.
Jesus Christ – He’s the One who came to a sin-filled world as our Savior, to save us from our sins.
New Creation Through Jesus – Beginning with His followers and ending with a new heaven and a new earth, God is in the business of making things new.
When we look at the probable date of the writing of the books of the Bible, we see a gap of about 480 years between Nehemiah (430 bc) and James (48 ad). The books before the gap are called the Old Testament, and those after, the New Testament. Jesus heralded the New Testament; He came to earth during the gap between the two testaments. The word “testament” means covenant or agreement; in this case the agreement is between God and humanity. In the Old Testament there is the covenant of the Law. In the New Testament we find the covenant of grace which came through Jesus Christ.
The word “new” occurs 192 times in 174 verses in the New International Version of the Bible. Here are some new things in the New Testament.
Jesus said “A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are My disciples, if you love one another” (Jn. 13:34-35).
The Christianity that Jesus brought into the world was like new wine compared to the old wine of the Old Testament Law (Mt. 9:16-17). New wineskins (traditions and ways of doing things) were required to hold this new wine; they were different from Judaism.
After the last supper Jesus said, “This cup is the new covenant in My blood, which is poured out for you” (Lk. 22:20). This means that the new covenant promised in the Old Testament (Jer. 31:31-34) was based on Christ’s death. Also, after His death, Jesus was placed in a new tomb (Mt 27:60).
The gospel is “a new and living way” (Heb. 10:20). Believers have a new life like Christ’s resurrection life (Rom. 6:4). This is described as “a new creation; the old has gone, the new has come” (2 Cor. 5:17). Also, they serve God in the new way of the Spirit (such as, love and liberty), and not in the old way of the written code (such as, fear and bondage) (Rom. 7:6).
In heaven, believers will sing a new song: “You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals, because You were slain, and with Your blood You purchased men for God from every tribe and language and people and nation” (Rev. 5:9). Christians “are looking forward to a new heaven and a new earth, the home of righteousness” (2 Pet. 3:13).
John’s vision was this: “Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and there was no longer any sea. I saw the Holy City, the new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride beautifully dressed for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, ‘Now the dwelling of God is with men, and He will live with them. They will be His people, and God Himself will be with them and be their God. He will wipe every tear from their eyes. There will be no more death or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things has passed away.’ He who was seated on the throne said, ‘I am making everything new!’” (Rev. 21:1-5).
What A Vision!
Let’s keep this vision before us in the year ahead. We anticipate the Lord’s return soon because it is the next event in God’s timetable towards the new heaven and new earth.
Published, January 2007