Hollywood has produced a blockbuster movie that is loosely based on the life of the biblical character Noah. It includes stunning visuals of the catastrophic global flood via computer generated imagery. But why was Noah’s family saved from the disaster? And why were the rest of the people and the animals of the earth destroyed in the cataclysmic flood? To find the answers we need to go to the original record, the book of Genesis in the Bible (Gen. 6:1-13). Here we will see that mothers have strong influences on their children. So much so, that ungodly mothers often lead their children into ungodliness.
The first five books of the Bible (the Pentateuch) were compiled and written by Moses for the benefit of the Israelite nation. Genesis begins with the creation of the universe, including the first people who were told to populate the earth. After Adam and Eve sinned by disobeying God, their son Cain murdered his brother Abel. Then Adam and Eve had another son named Seth.
• A selection of Cain’s descendants are listed to the 8th generation on earth (Gen. 4:17-24).
• A selection of Seth’s descendants are listed to the 10th generation on earth (Gen. 4:25 – 5:32).
• After this reasons are given for the flood (Gen. 6:1-13).
• And then Noah and the flood are described including the preparation before the flood, the flood itself, followed by its aftermath.
The characters in this prelude to the flood are the “sons of God” (Gen. 6:2, 4NIV), the “daughters of humans” (v.2, 4), the “Nephilim” (v.4), Noah (v.8-10) and the Lord (v.3, 5-8). In order to understand what these words meant to the Israelites, we will look at how Moses used them elsewhere in the Pentateuch.
The “sons of God” (Strongs # 1121, 430) are also mentioned in Deuteronomy 14:1 and 32:3-6. Deuteronomy describes God’s covenant with the Israelites, who are called “sons (or children) of the Lord your God”. God was their Father and Creator because He made the Israelite nation, even though they didn’t always behave like His sons (or children). But the Israelite nation commenced well after Genesis 6. As the Israelites were God’s people, the meaning of “sons of God” in Genesis 6 would be the people who followed God at that time. Enoch and Noah were said to have “walked faithfully with God”, so they would have been “sons of God” (Gen. 5:22; 6:9). As they were descendants of Seth and because when Seth had a son “At that time people began to call on the name of the Lord” (Gen. 4:26), presumably the “sons of God” were male descendants of Seth who followed the Lord. However, as faith in God is not necessarily restricted to one lineage, some of the “sons of God” may have been descendants of Seth’s brothers.
Such faith in God would have been evident in their obedience to God’s commands. As both Abel and Noah offered animal sacrifices to God, presumably that was one of God’s commands (Gen. 4:3-5; 8:20-21). At this time people knew the difference between right and wrong (Gen. 3:22). For example, Cain knew what was right, but didn’t do it (Gen. 4:7).
Traditionally the “sons of God” have been understood to be angels, but this is based on Scriptures outside the Pentateuch and on extra-biblical sources.
The “daughters of humans” (Strongs # 1323, 120) are also mentioned in v.1 where it is clear that they were women who were alive at that time. After looking at all the evidence, we will clarify what type of women they were.
The “Nephilim” (Strongs # 5303) were “the heroes of old, men of renown” (Gen. 6:4). The 10 bad spies said that the Nephilim “are of great size” (Num. 13: 32-33). The root word also means a bully or tyrant (Strongs Concordance). The term seems to describe mighty warriors with giant stature and great strength.
The passage says, “The Nephilim were on the earth in those days—and also afterward—when the sons of God went to the daughters of humans and had children by them. They were the heroes of old, men of renown” (Gen. 6:4). Notice that the Nephilim existed “in those days.” Which days? The days “When human beings began to increase in number on the earth” (v.1) and “when the sons of God went to the daughters of humans and had children by them” (v.4), “and also afterward (v.4)”. The passage doesn’t seem to indicate the Nephilim were caused by the union, but that they existed at the same time as these unions took place. So they are a historical marker.
Traditionally the “Nephilim” have been understood to be the product of the union between fallen angels and women, but this is not what the Hebrew text says and is based on Scriptures outside the Pentateuch (Job 1:6; 2:1; Dan. 3:25) and on extra-biblical sources.
In Genesis 6, Noah is contrasted against others. He is righteous and blameless, while they are wicked. We will see that he is being compared with the other descendants of Seth who were alive at that time.
The order within Genesis is a historical sequence, which provides an overall genealogy from Adam to Joseph’s grandchildren. Within each family the children of lesser importance are usually mentioned briefly followed by a more detailed account of the children that were divinely chosen to be God’s agents. The latter were either Christ’s ancestors or Israelite patriarchs. For example, Shem over Japheth and Ham (Gen. 10:1-32; 11:10-26), Isaac over Ishmael (Gen. 25:12-18; 25:19 – 35:29), and Jacob over Esau (Gen. 36:1-43; 37:1 – 50:14).
Likewise, the genealogy of Cain (Gen. 4:17-24) is given before that of Seth (Gen. 4:25 – 5:32). “The written account of Adam’s family line” goes through Seth, not Cain (Gen. 5:1). Cain’s genealogy in the Bible only goes to Lamech’s children (8 generations), but Seth’s goes to Christ (Lk. 3:23-38; at least 75 generations). So Cain’s descendants are of lesser importance in the Bible than those of Seth.
As Noah is a descendant of Seth, Genesis 5-10 is an account of the descendants of Seth. This includes the passage we are looking at (Gen. 6:1-13).
“Noah was a righteous man, blameless among the people of his time” who “walked faithfully with God” (Gen 6:10). “Blameless” (tamim Strongs #8549) means sound, wholesome, unimpaired, innocent, having integrity. It includes being innocent of the behavior listed below and of idolatry and spiritism (Dt. 18:13). Instead he usually followed God and did what was right. But he still sinned as indicated by his drunkenness after the flood (Gen. 9:21).
In contrast, at that time the other descendants of Seth were characterized by:
• “The Lord saw how great the wickedness of the human race had become on the earth, and that every inclination of the thoughts of the human heart was only evil all the time” (Gen. 6:5). This was extreme evil – note “every inclination,” “only evil,” and “all the time.”
• “the earth was corrupt in God’s sight and was full of violence” (Gen. 6:11).
• “God saw how corrupt the earth had become, for all the people on earth had corrupted their ways” (Gen. 6:12).
• “the earth is filled with violence” (Gen. 6:13).
Three Hebrew words are repeated in these verses. They are given below together with their usage in the Pentateuch.
• “Wickedness” & “evil” (ra Strongs #7451). This word is also used to describe the people of Sodom (Gen. 13:13); adultery, when Joseph resisted Potiphar’s wife (Gen. 39:9); and Israel’s rebellion when they refused to enter Canaan (Num. 32:13).
• “Violence” (chamas Strongs # 2555), which means violence or wrong, including Hagar’s injurious language and harsh treatment of Sarai (Gen. 16:5).
• “Corrupt” (sachath Strongs #7843), which means moral corruption, including idolatry (Ex 32:7; Dt. 4:16, 25; 9:12; 31:29; 32:5).
What can we learn about this situation from the New Testament? Noah was a “preacher of righteousness” and those destroyed in the flood were “ungodly” (2 Pt. 2:5). For 120 years before the flood, Noah preached in the power of the Holy Spirit to those who were disobedient and God waited patiently (1 Pt. 3:19-20).
Noah had great faith in God (Heb. 11:7). When warned about things not yet seen (God predicated a destructive flood), in holy fear he built an ark to save his family. The salvation of his family and the animals in the ark is symbolic of salvation through Christ’s death and resurrection (1 Pt. 3:21).
The ungodly people didn’t expect the flood. They carried on living as usual until it was too late when the flood came (Mt 24:37-41; Lk. 17:26-27). That’s how it will be when Christ returns to judge the world. The ungodly are taken away in both instances for judgment because they reject God’s mercy.
Thousands of years after the flood, people forget that the world was destroyed in the flood and doubt that God will judge the world again (2 Pt. 3:6-7). But the next time it will be by fire.
Noah is included in the genealogy of Christ (Lk. 3:23-38). After Adam sinned God told Satan “I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; he will crush your head, and you will strike his heel” (Gen 3:15). This was a promise that one of Eve’s male descendants would destroy Satan. People may have wondered who would be the destroyer and Satan would be trying to stop the fulfilment. The first candidate was Abel, but Satan had him murdered by Cain. Noah was the only candidate of His time, so Satan would be trying to introduce ungodliness into Noah’s family. So this was a crucial point in the genealogy of Christ. We see that God acted decisively to remove this threat.
The Bible says that the flood was God’s judgment of humanity’s wickedness. But what caused this wickedness to spread amongst mankind? The Bible seems to give a clue when it mentions the marriage between the “sons of God” and the “daughters of humans” before and after the warning in Genesis 6:3. The implication is that the cause of the departure from righteousness amongst God’s people in Noah’s day was because godly men chose ungodly wives. They chose wives based on their beauty alone – “the sons of God saw that the daughters of humans were beautiful, and they married any of them they chose” (Gen. 6:2). It seems as though the wives spread this ungodly behavior through their children (Gen 6:4). Like those destroyed in the flood, they were “ungodly”. When a godly man marries an ungodly woman, the children are likely to be ungodly. If most godly men marry ungodly women, after a few generations, most of the people are likely to be ungodly.
So one of the reasons why Noah was godly was because he probably had a godly mother. He learnt to obey God when he was young and continued to be godly when he was an adult. Likewise one of the reasons his mother was godly was because her mother was probably godly. Here we see how the godly influence of mothers can propagate to their descendants. So one of the reasons why Noah was godly was because of the godly influence of his female ancestors.
This explanation is consistent with the rest of Scripture which teaches that the Israelites were not to intermarry with the Canaanites because they would cause their children to follow idols (Dt. 7:3-4). When they disobeyed this command, they were expelled from the promised land (Jer. 44:1-30). After the exile, they were punished for continuing to marry idol worshippers (Ezra 9:1-4, 10-15; 10:1-44; Neh. 13:23-27; Mal. 2:10-12). Also, Christians shouldn’t marry unbelievers (1 Cor. 7:39; 2 Cor. 6:14-18).
If Noah’s ancestors were godly and they didn’t die in the flood, then they must have already died when the flood came. Otherwise, they should have been on the ark. Using the dates in Genesis 5 we see that his father Lamech died 5 years before the flood and his grandfather Methuselah died in the year that the flood came. This was enabled because Noah didn’t have a child until he was 500 years of age, which was more than double the next largest recorded time period of 187 years. Also, Lamech was the youngest to die at 777 years, appreciably younger than the next recorded youngest of 895 years.
Maybe the ungodly were influenced by descendants of Cain such as the different Lamech who practiced polygamy and murder (Gen. 4:19, 23-24). This evil was so widespread that Noah was the only man to resist this temptation. But if the ungodliness continued unchecked, the godly remnant would have ceased to exist (humanly speaking).
Some say that Genesis 6:2 refers to intermarriage between the descendants of Seth and of Cain. But this implies that all the descendants of Seth were godly and those of Cain were all ungodly. This is not true, because when the flood came all the descendants of Seth except Noah’s family died in the flood, which implies they were ungodly.
Why were the rest of the people destroyed in the flood? The Bible says they were ungodly. One of the reasons they were ungodly is because they probably had ungodly mothers. They learnt to disobey God when they were young and continued to be ungodly when they were adults. They disobeyed God by refusing to offer animal sacrifices. Instead they probably worshipped idols. Also, they refused God’s mercy because they refused to believe that they faced His judgment.
Was God unfair to judge the world in this way? Well we see that they had plenty of warning. At that time, the Lord said “My Spirit will not contend with humans forever, for they are mortal (or corrupt); their days will be a hundred and twenty years” (Gen. 6:3). Here God is giving the people 120 years warning of their coming judgment.
Chief lesson for us
For us today, the salvation of Noah’s family in the ark is symbolic of the salvation available through Christ’s death and resurrection (1 Pt. 3:21). There is a warning that unless we respond to God’s rescue plan, we will perish spiritually in hell, just like those who perished physically in the flood. Meanwhile God is waiting patiently “not wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to come to repentance” (2 Pt. 3:9). Those who confess and repent of their sin and trust that Christ has paid the penalty are godly in God’s sight (like Noah) and will live eternally in heaven.
So Noah was saved from the flood because he took after his godly mother. The rest of the people were destroyed in the flood because they took after their ungodly mothers.
This shows the power of a mother’s influence on her children. Godly men need to be careful when choosing a wife because of the impact on the spirituality of their descendants. Ungodly mothers often lead their children into ungodliness. After all, godliness is more important than beauty.
Written, April 2014
Sin is our greatest problem
Our world can be a dangerous place. But sometimes we are unaware and oblivious of the dangers. Using a smart phone can be dangerous if we are not aware of what’s happening around us. After a woman died recently in Sydney when she was run over by a bus, police issued a warning about people using their phones when walking.
Not only are there physical dangers, but there are spiritual dangers. Are we aware of the spiritual dangers we face? Like ignoring the God who made the universe by living as though there is no God? Or are we oblivious of these like someone using a phone when crossing a street? Today in a survey of the first 11 chapters of the Bible we will see that sin against God is our greatest problem, and the source of all our problems.
This passage was compiled and written by Moses 700–2,500 years after the events occurred. Some of this information was passed down from his ancestors and some was revealed to him directly by God. Note that most of this time is covered by two generations – the lifetimes of Adam and Noah cover about 1,900 years. When he wrote it, Moses was “carried along by the Holy Spirit” (2 Pt. 1:21NIV). “Moses was educated in all the wisdom of the Egyptians”, so he could write and keep records (Acts 7:22).
The Israelites had been slaves in Egypt where people worshiped many pagan gods (Polytheism). In order to understand their situation and their world, they needed to know about the earlier history of the world. This helps us understand our world as well.
Genesis covers the origins of the universe, the earth, humanity, marriage, sin, languages, the nations, and the Israelites as God’s chosen people. The first eleven chapters summarize the highlights of world history up to the time of Abraham. This history includes four crises.
A crisis in the first generation
Chapters 1-2 describe the creation of the universe, the earth, the plants and animals, and Adam and Eve, the first man and woman. God spoke and it happened over a period of six days. They were given one restriction: “you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat from it you will certainly die” (Gen. 2:17).
The first crisis occurs when Adam and Eve are tempted by Satan to disobey God (Gen. 3:1-5). What will they do: follow God or Satan? This is a unique situation, because they lived in a perfect world and didn’t have a sinful nature. It was an external temptation. After they chose to disobey God and eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, they are banished from the Garden of Eden. This first sin affected the whole creation including child birth, relationships between husband and wife, work and agriculture. Life was now a struggle with conflict, suffering, disease, decay, spiritual death and physical death. They went from a life in paradise to a life of problems. Their problems were a consequence of their sin. Sin was their greatest problem and the source of all their problems.
The Bible teaches that we have all inherited this sinful tendency – “everyone has sinned, we all fall short of God’s glorious standard” (Rom. 3:23NLT). Everyone is guilty; we are all self-centred, and so we were all affected.
However, in the list of God’s punishments there is a promise. He said to Satan “I will put enmity between you and the woman (Eve), and between your offspring and hers; he (Eve’s offspring) will crush your head, and you will strike his heel” (Gen. 3:15NIV). So there is a hint of good news amidst the bad news. A suggestion of an end to the conflict between people and Satan, when Satan is crushed.
It’s a bit like the old game of “Snakes and Ladders” (“Chutes and Ladders in the US”) where you roll a dice to get a number and move that many spaces along the board. When you land on the head of a snake you slide backwards, and when you land on the bottom of a ladder you jump ahead. The consequences of Adam and Eve’s sin hindered their life and moved them away from God, like the snakes hinder a player of snakes and ladders. The sin sequence is: temptation, followed by sin, and spiritual death. But the promise of victory over Satan is like a ladder to help them and move them towards God.
Adam blamed Eve and Eve blamed Satan the snake (Gen. 3:12-13). Like Adam and Eve, we often blame our problems on others or our circumstances. Do we realise that our sin is our greatest problem? Do we ignore God by living as though He doesn’t exist?
A crisis in the second generation
Cain and Able were Adam and Eve’s first two sons. Cain becomes jealous of Abel. The second crisis occurs when this develops into hatred and he is tempted to kill Abel. What will he do; follow God or his anger? His parents would have told him what happened after they disobeyed God. But he murders Abel and is banished to be a nomad and “went out from the Lord’s presence” (Gen. 4:1-16). Cain’s problems were a consequence of his sin. This incident would have devastated Adam and Eve. The first boy to grow from infancy to maturity was a murderer! Their greatest problem as a family was caused by Cain’s sin.
But once again, it’s not all bad news. Because Cain was worried about his safety, “the Lord put a mark on Cain so that no one who found him would kill him” (Gen. 4:15). This is a promise of God’s protection. We can see a pattern developing here. God punishes sin, but provides some relief in the form of a promise.
Also, it is an example of the conflict between Satan’s offspring and Eve’s godly offspring (Gen. 3:15). In this case Cain was Satan’s agent who killed Abel, who is commended for his faith in God (Heb. 11:4; 1 Jn. 3:12). But God replaced Abel with Seth and the godly line of descendants was re-established (Gen. 4:25-26).
So in the history of humanity, Cain is like a snake in the game of snakes and ladders and Seth is like a ladder. Cain’s descendants moved away from God and lived as thought He wasn’t there, while Seth’s descendants moved towards God and followed Him. Who are we like; Cain or Seth (Jude 11)? Cain ignored God, but Seth followed God.
According to the Bible, The fool says …, “There is no God”. They are corrupt, their deeds are vile; there is no one who does good” (Ps. 14:1). If we live as though there is no God, then we become god. We claim to know everything everywhere – otherwise God could exist somewhere, but we could be ignorant of Him. The Bible says this is foolish and leads to sinful behavior.
A crisis in the 10th generation
During the 1,600 years after the first crisis, the earth’s population grew, being comprised of cities and societies. We have seen the crises and problems in the early history of our earth for individuals and for a family. Now we will look at society as a whole.
Wickedness increased with time. It became a part of their normal way of life. They were oblivious to its danger. In the days of Noah, society was characterized by violence and corruption (Gen. 6:1-7). “The Lord saw how great the wickedness of the human race had become on the earth, and that every inclination of the thoughts of the human heart was only evil all the time” (Gen. 6:5). It is a crisis where a society of people turns away from God and go their own way. They reject the message of Noah, the “preacher of righteousness” (2 Pt. 2:5). He warned people to turn to God or face God’s judgment. So they had a choice to make.
God’s judgement on their sin was to destroy the original creation with a global flood. The death of these people was a consequence of their sin. Their greatest problem as a society was caused by their sin.
But once again, it’s not all bad news. Noah’s godly family was protected on the ark (Gen. 7:1 – 8:19) and given a promise that the earth would never be destroyed again by a flood (Gen. 8:21 – 9:17). Here we see that God punishes sin, but some are rescued.
Noah’s family is like a ladder in the game of snakes and ladders. They followed God. The rest of the people are like a snake. They moved away from God and lived as thought He wasn’t there. Who are we like; Noah’s family or the rest? The rest ignored God, but Noah’s family followed God. Their choice determined their destiny.
A crisis in the 15th generation
In God’s covenant with Noah, He commanded the people to “Be fruitful and increase in number and fill the earth” (Gen. 9:1). They obeyed the first part but not the second. They increased in number and built the city of Babel, but resisted being scattered across the earth (Gen. 11:1-4). They proudly built a tower as a monument to celebrate their achievements. This is another crisis where a society of people turns away from God and go their own way.
God’s judgement on their sin was to cause the people to start using different languages (Gen. 11:7-9). Now because they couldn’t understand each other, they scattered across the earth into different nations that spoke different languages. This would have been a tough time. They lost technology and homes that were in the city, becoming nomads and settling in new areas. Some probably lived in caves at this time. The scattering of these people was a consequence of their sin. Their greatest problem as a society was caused by their sin.
Once again we see that God punishes sin, but where is the promise? It’s like a game of snakes and ladders without the ladders. The promise is given to Abraham in the next section of the book of Genesis.
Are we alert or oblivious?
What can we learn from these four crises in early history involving Adam, Cain, the flood and Babel?
At each crisis the people had a choice, but the choice wasn’t unlimited. Because we are finite, we are only free to make decisions within God’s limits and boundaries. God is the only one without boundaries – He is infinite. He gave us a free will and choice, but within certain boundaries. God sets the standard for human behaviour. It is a sin to cross those boundaries.
At each crisis the people had a choice to follow God or Satan. And their choice determined what their life was like afterwards. Likewise, our choices have physical and spiritual consequences. They determine our destiny in many ways.
But in each crisis people acted as though God wasn’t there; they ignored the possibility that they would be punished for disobeying God. They were unaware and oblivious of this danger. It’s like they were asleep or unconscious or there’s a malfunction of the brain and nervous system. My nephew is in a hospital brain injury unit. He can see and hear and is starting to speak a little, but he can’t respond with the rest of his body. If there is danger, he can’t react to it. For our safety, let’s be alert and aware of spiritual dangers instead of being oblivious. The dangerous sin sequence is: temptation, followed by sin, spiritual death, physical death, and eternal death in hell. It’s the snake to hell that Satan promotes. It’s the choice of those oblivious to temptation. Here death is the door to hell.
God made us with a conscience, an inborn sense of right and wrong (Rom. 2:15). It’s like an alarm to remind us when something is wrong. It worked for Adam and Eve when they felt guilty and hid from God after they sinned. Then they confessed their sin. Is your conscience working or broken?
Our greatest danger is spiritual death, which leads to eternal punishment in hell. This is the consequence of our sin if we don’t accept God’s promise of eternal life with Him in heaven (Jn. 3:16). That life is possible because Jesus took the punishment that we deserve when He died on the cross. It is ours if we confess our sin and repent by turning around to follow God. Have you done that?
This salvation is like the promises that we found in the passage. It is an example of God’s grace and mercy and like the ladders in snakes and ladders, which move us closer to God. The salvation sequence is: Conviction of our sinfulness – our conscience alarms, followed by confession, and repentance, followed by God’s forgiveness, spiritual life, physical death, and eternal life in heaven. It’s the ladder to heaven that Jesus Christ provides. It’s the choice of those alert to temptation. Here death is the door to heaven.
According to the Bible, there are no other chances to follow God after we die. We only live once, and die once. We only have one life to follow Jesus and then the opportunity will end. There is no reincarnation. Also, the way of salvation is not through good works, or superior knowledge, or acts of worship or devotion. We can’t get to heaven by being good. It’s not through what we do, but accepting what Jesus has already done for us.
But sin has consequences for Christians as well. We can also be oblivious and live as though God isn’t there. This destroys our fellowship with God. It can be restored if we confess our sin and repent by turning around to follow God once again (1 Jn. 1:9). This pattern is like snakes and ladders, with sin being a snake that moves us away from God and restoration a ladder that moves us towards God. The sequence is: Temptation, followed by sin, loss of fellowship with God, conviction of our sinfulness – our conscience alarms, confession, repentance, followed by God’s forgiveness, and the restoration of fellowship with God. It’s the snake and ladder of daily Christian living. It’s the choice of those oblivious to temptation, but whose conscience alarms later.
Of course it is better if our conscience alarms at the stage of temptation than that at the stage of conviction. So temptation is a critical stage. A healthy alert conscience short circuits the cycle and saves a lot of anguish.
Christians still experience the conflict between Satan and humanity (Gen. 3:15). When we pray it’s good to include spiritual concerns like temptation, sin, conviction, confession, repentance, and salvation, not just physical concerns.
Because we are all sinful, there will be crises in our life. There will be choices to make. In this respect, life is different to the game of snakes and ladders: it’s about choice, not chance. When facing a crisis, we need to realise that sin is our greatest problem. The first step in dealing with a problem or an addiction is to acknowledge that we have a problem. Then we can deal with the sin and get right with God.
Some say Genesis chapters 1-11 is just a story to illustrate that God made the world. It really took billions of years, not six days. It’s not real history. It’s a different genre. Adam and Eve didn’t exist, there was no global flood. The genealogies aren’t true. It’s an ancient myth. But such a viewpoint undermines the whole Bible. This part of Genesis is quoted extensively by both Jesus and Paul. Adam and Noah are both mentioned 8 times in the New Testament. They were real people.
So let’s remember these lessons from the early chapters of Genesis. Let’s be alert and aware of our sinfulness and not oblivious like someone using a smart phone when crossing a street. We ignore it at our peril because God punishes sinners. But it’s not all bad news, the good news is that God promised to help sinners like us and the rest of the Bible describes how He did it.
Let’s be like Noah’s family and make good choices and follow the God who made the universe, instead of living like He isn’t there. Realizing that sin is our greatest problem and Jesus is God’s solution.
Written, February 2014