Observations on life; particularly spiritual

Posts tagged “demon

Sampling the abyss

The abyss 2 400pxThe abyss is the largest and deepest habitat on the planet, covering half the world’s oceans, but it remains the most unexplored environment on earth. During the “Sampling the abyss” voyage in 2017, over 100 different fish species were collected from the deep ocean at depths of up to 4800 metres in Australian waters. That’s an example of how the word “abyss” is used today. But what does this word mean in the Bible? For example, when Jesus cast the demons out of the demon-possessed man, the demons begged Jesus “not to order them to go into the Abyss” (Lk. 8:31NIV). So what is “the abyss”?

Old Testament usage

The equivalent Hebrew word is the noun tehom (Strongs #8415), which means deep. It occurs 36 times in the Old Testament and is used in three ways.

The first refers to the sea or the depths of the sea (Gen. 1:2; Ex. 15:5, 8; Ps. 135:6; Ezek. 26:19). For example, when Pharaoh’s army drowned in the Red Sea, the Israelites sang “The deep waters (tehom) have covered them” (Ex. 15:5). And the psalmist says that all the creatures of the ocean depths (tehom) praise the Lord their creator (Ps. 148:7).

The second refers to subterranean water from deep within the earth (Gen. 7:11; 8:2; 49:25; Dt. 8:7; 33:13; Ps. 33:7). For example, Canaan was “a land with brooks, streams, and deep springs (tehom) gushing out into the valleys and hills” (Dt. 8:7).

These are the most common meanings of abyss in the Old Testament. But there is a single instance of another meaning.

The third is a figure of speech for times of distress and trouble. In a prayer for help in old age the psalmist says that God will restore them from their troubles.

“Though you (God) have made me see troubles,
many and bitter,
you will restore my life again;
from the depths (tehom) of the earth
you will again bring me up.” (Ps. 71:20).

Here God has permitted troubles and “the depths of the earth” stands for the psalmist’s distress and trouble, and not subterranean water. Tehom is also used in this way in, “Deep (tehom) calls to deep in the roar of your waterfalls (Ps. 42:7). Here the psalmist is depressed because of his troubles (Ps. 42:6, 11).

But the word “abyss” is used differently in the New Testament.

New Testament usage

The Greek adjective abussos (Strongs #12) means very deep or bottomless. It means “a deep hole”—so deep that it seems bottomless or immeasurable. Paul (AD 57), Luke (AD 60) and John (AD 95) used the word. It occurs 9 times in the New Testament and is used in two ways.

The place where demons are imprisoned

Luke says that the demons didn’t want to be sent to the abyss (Lk. 8:31). The NLT calls it “the bottomless pit” or “the underworld”. Instead, Jesus sent them into a herd of pigs who rushed into the Sea of Galilee and drowned.

Demons or evil spirits describe angels who rebelled against God. Some demons seem to be free to roam and others are locked in the abyss (Rev. 9:1-2). Their leader is called Destroyer (Rev. 9:11).

Jude said, “the angels who did not keep their positions of authority but abandoned their proper dwelling—these He (God) has kept in darkness, bound with everlasting chains for judgment on the great Day” (Jude 6). This seems to describe demons imprisoned in the abyss  until the day of judgment.

And Peter said, “For if God did not spare angels when they sinned, but sent them to hell (Tartarus in Greek), putting them in chains of darkness to be held for judgment” (2 Pt. 2:4). According the NET, “Tartarus was thought of by the Greeks as a subterranean place lower than Hades where divine punishment was meted out, and so regarded in Israelite apocalyptic as well”. It seems as though “Tartarus” is equivalent to the “abyss”.

According to John, in the future, demons from the abyss will empower a great political leader who will persecute God’s people (Rev. 11:7; 17:8). After this Satan will be bound in the abyss for 1,000 years (Rev. 20:1-3). Then Satan is released “from his prison” (Rev. 20:7). Finally Satan will be thrown into the Lake of Fire to be “tormented day and night for ever and ever” (Rev. 20:10).

Demons are spirits who inhabit a different world to ours. And the abyss is where they are imprisoned pending their final judgement. It’s probably a spiritual place, and not necessarily a physical place.

Now we will look at the other meaning of abyss.

The realm of the dead

Paul taught that people don’t have to go to great lengths to obtain salvation – ‘Faith’s way of getting right with God says, “Don’t say in your heart, ‘Who will go up to heaven?’ (to bring Christ down to earth). And don’t say, ‘Who will go down to the place of the dead (abussos)?’ (to bring Christ back to life again)’ (Rom. 10:6-7). This is a quotation from Deuteronomy 30:11-14 where Moses says that the law of God was easy to understand and was readily available; “what I am commanding you today is not too difficult for you or beyond your reach … the word is very near you; it is in your mouth and in your heart so you may obey it” (Dt. 30:11, 14). So Paul is using this to say that the Christian gospel is also readily available. We don’t have to go up to heaven to get it because Jesus has already brought it down to earth. And we don’t have descend into the realm of the dead to bring Christ up from among the dead, because Christ has already risen from the dead. Faith will cause us to fully believe in the incarnation and resurrection of the Lord Jesus. Because, if we declare with our mouth, “Jesus is Lord,” and believe in our heart that God raised Him from the dead, we will be saved (Rom. 10:9).

So in the New Testament the word “abyss”  is used as a metaphor for the place for the containment of demons and for the realm of the dead.

Lessons for us

In the Old Testament the abyss usually means the sea, the depths of the sea, or subterranean water from deep within the earth. In the New Testament it usually means the place where demons are imprisoned. This shows how words can change their meaning over time.

It also indicates that there is a spiritual world that’s different to our physical world. We ignore it at our peril. Because that’s where God dwells and He is the source of our salvation.

Do you realize that God’s salvation is readily available to us? (When Paul taught this he used the abyss to mean the realm of the dead) We just have to believe in what Jesus did for us (in coming to earth, dying, resurrecting back to life, and ascending to heaven) and accept it as payment for our sin. But we can’t do this after we die. It’s too late!

Meanwhile, we don’t need to be afraid of demons or evil spirits because God has ultimate power over them.

Reference
Thayer’s Greek Lexicon

Written, June 2018


Where are Satan and demons?

Prince of Persia 400pxI have been asked this question: “Where is the place of the demon on air? For Daniel prayed and the prince of Persia held the Amen of his prayer”.

The Prince of Persia

“The prince of Persia” is mentioned in Daniel 10:13, 20. The book of Daniel was probably written about 530 BC. Daniel had been exiled to Babylon in about 605 BC and the exile finished when Zerubbabel returned to Jerusalem in 538 BC. His book is historical narrative (Ch. 1-6) and apocalyptic (Ch. 7-12).

Chapter 10 describes Daniel’s vision of a heavenly man in 537 BC. When Daniel received a vision of a great war, he was disturbed and prayed for God’s help. Then he mourned for three weeks until he had the vision of the heavenly man who was probably an angel (Dan. 10:5-21). The angel said that Daniel’s prayer had been heard and the angel had been sent to help him. But the angel had been delayed for 21 days by the prince of “the Persian kingdom”, presumably a demon associated with the Persian Empire (Note that the archangel Michael is called a “prince” in Daniel 10:13, 21; 12:1). The angel said that the archangel Michael had helped them overcome the demon. This vision made Daniel weak and speechless, but the angel strengthened him. The angel came to reveal future events to Daniel. And after this, the angel would return to oppose the prince of Persia once again and later on the prince of Greece (presumably a demon associated with the Greek Empire) would come.

This shows that there was a spiritual battle going on. God’s prophet Daniel was being opposed by a particular demon that was associated with the Persian government. Maybe they were influencing the government to make life difficult for Daniel This opposition caused the answer to Daniel’s prayer to be delayed. But God’s angel protected Daniel from the demon’s influence and the prayer was eventually answered.

Likewise, the Christian life is a spiritual battle: “For our struggle is not against flesh and blood (people), but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the powers of this dark world and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly realms” (Eph. 6:12NIV). Here Satan and demons are described as powerful beings that occupy the unseen heavenly realm.

The ruler of the kingdom of the air

The question is “Where is the place of the demon on air”? The word “air” isn’t mentioned in the passage in Daniel 10, but is mentioned in a New Testament passage: “As for you, you were dead in your transgressions and sins, in which you used to live when you followed the ways of this world and of the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the spirit who is now at work in those who are disobedient” (Eph. 2:1-2).

Ephesians 2:1-3 shows our situation before becoming Christians. Here unbelievers are said to be spiritually dead (separated from God) and following the ways of Satan, who is “the ruler of the kingdom of the air”. Elsewhere Satan is called “the prince of this world”, “the god of this age”, and the whole world is said to be under his control (Jn. 14:30; 2 Cor. 4:3-4; 1 Jn. 5:19). There are three possible interpretations of “the kingdom of the air”:
– It’s the realm under Satan’s influence which is described elsewhere as “this world”, “the whole world”, and “this age”.
– It’s the realm occupied by demons. This may be part of the “heavenly realms” occupied by demons (evil spirits) (Eph. 1:3; 6:12). Christ is in the heavenly realms (Eph. 1:20) as are angels, Satan and demons (Eph. 3:10). Also, the Greek word translated “air” (aeros, Strongs #109) means the lower atmosphere and according to Jewish opinion, the demons occupy this realm (Thayer’s Greek Lexion).
– It’s Satan’s world system, his philosophy of life, which includes religion and righteousness without God, as well as sin. People in this system are subject to Satan’s influence.

The Greek word translated “spirit” (pneumatos, Strongs #4151) in Ephesians 2:2 means the influence which governs someone or the source of power, affection, emotion or desire (Thayer’s Greek Lexion). It’s saying that Satan is the dominant influence in the lives of non-Christians.

Heaven and earth

The activities of Satan and demons are more important than their place or location. As they are spirits without a body, they don’t necessarily occupy a physical place like we do. It’s clear that Satan and demons have access to both God in heaven and humanity on earth (Job 2:1-2).

Satan continually accuses believers before God (Rev. 12:10). For example, he questioned Job’s faithfulness (Job. 1:9-11; 2:4) and questioned the fitness of the Jews to carry out priestly functions after the exile (Zech. 3:1-5). But in future Satan will be evicted from heaven.

Satan impacts on God’s people as a “roaring lion” (1 Pt.5:8) and an “angel of light” (2 Cor. 11:14). As a roaring lion, Satan devours and destroys. For example, Jews and Christians have been persecuted for thousands of years. As an angel of light, Satan deceives both believers (2 Cor. 11:3-4) and unbelievers (Rev. 20:3). He propagates a counterfeit Jesus, a counterfeit spirit, and a counterfeit gospel. And his false apostles can prophesy future events and do miracles, including healing (Mt. 7:22-23; 2 Cor. 11:13). He also convinces people that he doesn’t exist. But in future Satan will be evicted from the earth.

Satan is also called “the tempter”, because he tempts people to sin (Mt. 4:3; 1 Th. 3:5). As Adam and Eve and Jesus were tempted to disobey God, so Satan tempts us all 1 Cor. 10:13).

Satan’s destiny

Fortunately, the evil acts of people and Satan are under God’s control (Job 1:12; Acts 4:28). So God restrains Satan and his demons. Satan is restrained in stages. Jesus did it when He was on earth (Mt. 12:29). It was guaranteed by the death and resurrection of Christ (Heb. 2:14). In future Satan won’t be able to deceive the nations during the millennial reign of Christ (Rev. 20:1-3). And it will be eternally true when he is cast into the lake of fire (Rev. 20:10).

Though Satan has been defeated, and eventually will be thrown into the lake of fire, he is still actively spreading evil. Christians need to understand who he is, and what he is able to do while he is still active.

Written, August 2016

Also see: The unseen world of demons
Satan. Part 1: Knowing our enemy
Satan. Part 2: Knowing his strategies