Correcting disrespect at Ephesus
The Football Federation of Australia’s Code of Conduct aims to promote and strengthen the reputation of football in Australia by establishing a standard of performance, behavior and professionalism for its participants and stakeholders. It also seeks to deter conduct that could impair public confidence in the honest and professional conduct of matches and good character of its participants. The code includes topics such as betting, match-fixing and corruption.
Today we are looking at God’s Code of Conduct for Christians at Ephesus. In particular, what is the good behavior for Christian women given in 1 Timothy 2:9-15 and how does this relate to us today? This article is based on an assessment of the text and context of this passage.
In about 64 AD, Paul wrote the letter of 1 Timothy to Timothy who was in Ephesus on a temporary mission to help correct problems in the church (1:3). Paul had established the church in Ephesus about eight years earlier when he spent two years preaching and teaching there (Acts 19:1-41). Now he is telling them how to behave as Christians. (3:14-15). It’s like a Code of Conduct. These principles of conduct applied to people at Ephesus “in God’s household, which is the church of the living God”. In this sense the church is not a building, or a meeting in a building, but a group of people who follow Jesus Christ. So the letter of 1 Timothy addresses Christian behavior in many situations, not just church meetings. In fact there is no textural evidence that any section of the letter only applies to a church meeting. Note that the section headings in our bibles aren’t inspired. The heading of “Instructions on worship” (2:1-15) in the NIV implies a church meeting. But where is the evidence to support this restriction? For this chapter, I prefer the HCSB headings which are “Instructions on prayer” (v.1-7), followed by “Instructions for men and women” (v.8-15).
Ephesus was a wealthy city in a central location along the coast of Asia Minor (modern day Turkey). It was an important trading, political and intellectual centre and a port that was on three main highways. Greeks and Jews lived in the region and there was a Jewish synagogue at Ephesus (Acts 18:19; 19:8, 10). Many Ephesians worshipped the goddess Artemis. The temple of Artemis was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, being four times as large as the Parthenon.
At that time, women generally had a low position in Jewish and Roman society. They were suppressed. But in Ephesus some reacted against this and dressed to impress (1 Tim. 2:9) and dominated their husbands and perhaps aspired to be leaders in the church (1 Tim. 2:12). But Paul saw that this was wrong for those who professed to follow Christ and he implemented corrective action.
The main topics addressed in the letter are false teachers (1:3-1; 4:1-16; 6:3-10) and Christian behavior. After urging evangelistic prayer (2:1-7), Paul looks at problems at Ephesus related to men (2:8) and women (2:9-10). Then he addresses women teaching and exercising authority over men (2:11-15). This is followed by instruction on church leadership by elders (3:1-7) and deacons (3:8-13).
Their attitude (1 Tim. 2:9NIV)
“I also want the women to dress modestly, with decency and propriety, adorning themselves, not with elaborate hairstyles or gold or pearls or expensive clothes”
This verse is linked with v.8 because it begins with the Greek word for “likewise” hósautós (Strongs #5615). Verse 8 says that whenever they pray (in the family and in the church), men should have holy lives (not unholy lives) and calmness (not anger) and make peace (not disputing). They were prone to unholy lives, anger and disputing, which hindered their prayers. These ungodly attitudes and behavior may have been aggravated by the false teachers in Ephesus who stirred up quarrels and strife (1 Tim. 6:4-5).
Verses 8-9 may imply that men have the primary responsibility for leading in prayer in the family and the church. But they don’t exclude wives/women from praying in the family and the church. Some believe that they imply that only men (and not women) should pray publicly in church, but there is no textural evidence that the context is a church meeting and it says nothing about the topic of woman and prayer. Meanwhile, it seems that both women and men prayed together after Christ’s ascension (Acts 1:14).
The word “likewise” (or “also”) at the beginning could indicate that v.9 applies to when there is prayer or when wives/women pray, or it could just indicate what ungodly attitudes and behavior women were prone to. I prefer the latter interpretation.
The standard is that Christian wives/women dress themselves in a manner that doesn’t draw attention to themselves and doesn’t distract others. In particular they should have modesty (not sexuality), decency and respectability (not dishonor or shamefulness) and propriety and self-control (not self-indulgence). The examples given concern women’s hairstyles, jewellery and clothing, which were being used in Ephesus to display one’s wealth and attractiveness (beauty) and to enhance the status and honor of their husbands. This could lead to others having admiration and jealousy. Also, gold, pearls and extravagant clothing could indicate a sexually lax lifestyle. Such an emphasis on appearance suggests a desire to attract attention to oneself, perhaps to seduce.
As girls married at a very young age at this time and childbearing is mentioned in v.15, Paul is mainly addressing married women in this passage.
Peter gave a similar instruction to wives, “Your beauty should not come from outward adornment, such as elaborate hairstyles and the wearing of gold jewellery or fine clothes. Rather, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight” (1 Pt. 3:3-4).
The principle behind Paul’s instruction is that Christian women show an attitude of modesty and self-control by dressing modestly and respectably, not extravagantly. They shouldn’t draw attention to themselves by their appearance. Our appearance matters because it shows our inner attitude and it affects others. This topic is continued in v.10.
Their testimony (1 Tim. 2:10)
“but with good deeds, appropriate for women who profess to worship God”
As the Greek text in v.10 refers to women who profess “the fear of God”, I prefer “women who profess reverence for God” (NET) or “women who profess godliness” (ESV). The use of the word “worship” could add the idea of a church meeting, which is absent in the original text.
Rather than being distinguished by what they wear, Paul says that godly women should be distinguished by their good deeds. These include, “bringing up children, showing hospitality, washing the feet of the Lord’s people, helping those in trouble”, managing their homes and caring for widows (1 Tim. 5:10, 14, 16). What they do should be more noticeable than their apparel. How they live is more important than how they look. Christian character is what counts.
When a woman claims to be a Christian then she should live so her good works support that claim. About four years earlier Paul told them, “we are God’s handiwork, created in Christ Jesus to do good works, which God prepared in advance for us to do” (Eph. 2:10). Good works should characterise both Christian men and women. The good works confirm the testimony of one’s faith in Christ.
The principle here is that Christian women be distinguished by good deeds rather than by their appearance.
Next Paul continues his corrective action for the women in Ephesus.
Their role (1 Tim. 2:11-12)
“A woman should learn in quietness and full submission. I do not permit a woman to teach or to assume authority over a man; she must be quiet”
Paul now changes from the plural to the singular. The reason for this isn’t clear, but it may be related to the fact that he introduces Adam and Eve in v.13-14. The word for “woman” and “wife” is the same in Greek and the word for “man” and “husband” is also the same. Because of this and because the word “submission” is mentioned elsewhere in the context of husband/wife, some think that the context is husband/wife. But the text and the context favor man/woman. The text says “a man”, not “her man” and the prayer and dress in v.8-9 refers to Christian men/women and not just to husbands/wives. Clearly the passage governs conduct in the Christian community and not just the home.
What do the Greek words translated “learn”, “quietness” and “submission” mean in v.11? The Greek verb for “learn” manthanó (Strongs #3129) means “to increase one’s knowledge”. Paul also uses “learn” in 1 Timothy 5:4, 13 where people are said to learn by use and practice – it becomes habitual. The verse says that a woman can learn Scripture (such learning is not restricted to the man) and when they do, they should be quiet and submissive. So women have the right to learn – “to come to a knowledge of the truth” of the gospel (v.4). This was a radical and liberating departure from the Jewish view that women were not to learn the law. For example, Mary of Bethany learnt from Jesus (Lk. 10:39). Now women need to learn Scripture for their roles in society, in the church and in the family.
The Greek noun for “quietness” hésuchia (#2271) means quietness or silence. It occurs twice in v.11-12. The only other occasion when Paul used this word is 2 Thessalonians. 3:12 where busybodies are told to “work quietly” and earn their keep, which means not meddling in another’s affairs. Paul used the verb form of this Greek word (#2270) in 1 Thessalonians. 4:11 where it means to mind your own business.
Paul used the adjectival version of this Greek word (#2272) in 1 Timothy 2:2 (the same chapter as our passage) where he said that believers should pray for kings and those in authority so they may have “peaceful and quiet lives in all godliness and holiness”. This means not having the turmoil and upheaval of anarchy, revolutions and civil wars. This is the most probable meaning of the word in v.11-12 as well. So it doesn’t mean “silence”, but in this context it means not being disruptive, aggressive, or challenging. The implication is that the women in Ephesus were being disruptive when they were learning. They didn’t have a “gentle and quiet spirit” (1 Pt. 3:4, the other instance of this word in Scripture). In this context it meant not teaching men and not leading men as an elder in the local church (v.12).
The Greek noun for “submissiveness” hupotagé (#5292) means subjection or obedience. In 1 Timothy 3:4 this word is used to describe how children are to obey their father. The word also describes how Paul didn’t give in (subject himself) to the legalists (Gal. 2:5).
The verb form of this Greek word (#5293) means to submit, to place under, or to obey. It is used to describe how a wife is subject to her husband, a slave to their master, and a person to the rulers and authorities (Ti. 2:5, 9; 3:1). Paul used it in a letter written to them a few years beforehand to describe how a wife is subject to her husband (Eph. 5:21-22, 24).
There are four passages where a wife/woman is to be submissive (#5293) to a husband/man (Eph. 5:22-24; Col. 3:18; Tit. 2:3-5; 1 Pt. 3:1, 5). In all these cases it states that a wife is to be submissive to her own husband. I think the “submission” in v.11 should be consistent with this, but it needn’t be identical.
So in 1 Timothy 2:11-12, the female learner is to be submissive/obedient to the teacher and to the Scripture being taught in the way she submits herself in marriage. Women weren’t to be teaching, dominating, ruling or interrupting men in the family and in the church. Instead they were to be quiet.
What do the Greek words translated “teach” and “assume authority” mean in v.12? The Greek verb for “teach” didaskó (#1321) means to instruct; or to impart knowledge. It nearly always refers to teaching the Scriptures. The word is also used in 1 Timothy 4:11; 6:2 to describe what Timothy was to teach.
The adjectives of this Greek word (#1317, #1318) respectively mean “able to teach” and “taught, instructed” (1 Cor. 2:13). A few verses after our passage, Paul says that an elder must be able to teach (1Tim. 3:2).
The nouns of this Greek word (#1319, 1320, 1322) respectively mean “instruction, or teaching” (1 Tim. 1:10; 4:1, 6, 13, 16, 17); “teacher” (1 Tim. 2:7); and “teaching, or doctrine” (2 Tim. 4:2).
Consequently, in 1 Timothy 2:12, the Greek word “teach” applies to a woman explaining the Scripture to a man. So this verse means that a woman is not to teach the Scripture to a man. What about Priscilla and her husband teaching Apollos in Ephesus (Acts 18:24-26)? In this case it was with her husband and privately in their home with the purpose of educating a preacher with a deficient understanding of Scripture. So the command in 1 Tim. 2:12 doesn’t apply to a husband and wife privately teaching another person. Of course, women can always teach children (2 Tim. 1:5; 3:14-15) and other women (Ti. 2:3-5). So they are allowed to teach, but not teach men.
Some say that this passage is addressed to women who were teaching heresy, but there is no textural evidence that any of the false teachers mentioned in 1 Timothy were women. Instead, when Paul addresses false teachers, it is obvious what he means (1 Tim. 1:3-4, 6-7, 19-20; 6:3-10).
The Greek verb for “assume authority” authenteó (#831) means to govern, to exercise authority, or to exercise dominion. It has also been defined to mean, “to assume a stance of independent authority, give orders to, dictate to”. Other translations say “have authority” (ESV, NLT) and “exercise authority” (HCSB, NET). According to the English dictionary, to “have authority” means to have the right to rule, govern, command, control or determine. As this is the only occasion that this Greek word is used in the Bible, it’s better to use the surrounding context to determine the meaning instead of consulting extra-biblical usage. In this case it’s an authority associated with teaching fellow believers in a local church (1 Tim. 2:12; 3:15). Those with such authority in the local church are the elders who comprise the leadership team. In fact the next topic in this letter is the qualifications of church elders (or overseers) (1 Tim. 3:1-7). So after saying who shouldn’t be elders, Paul specifies who can be elders. As elders need to be able to teach (1 Tim. 3:2), if someone was prohibited from teaching, they would also be prohibited from eldership. Besides this, one of the qualifications for leadership in the church is “faithful to his wife”, which rules out women (1 Tim. 3:2). Also, elders govern and teach, which are the two roles that aren’t appropriate for women to exercise in the church over men (1 Tim. 5:17).
So in 1 Timothy 2:12, the Greek word “assume authority” means to exercise the authority of an elder in the local church. Women can have authority, but not the authority of a church elder/overseer.
Some say that v.12 refers to one activity (teaching with authority) and not two (teaching and authority). This depends on the interpretation of the Greek conjunction oude (#3761). Paul uses this word three times in this letter.
• “For we brought nothing into the world, and (#3761) we can take nothing out of it” (1 Tim. 6:7). Here oude links two different ideas “we brought nothing into the world” and “we can take nothing out of it”.
• “who alone is immortal and who lives in unapproachable light, whom no one has seen or (#3761) can see” (1 Tim. 6:16). Here oude links two different but related ideas “no one has seen” and “no one can see”.
• “I do not permit a woman to teach or (#3761) to assume authority over a man” (1 Tim. 2:12). Therefore, the best interpretation (to be consistent with the other two instances of this word) is that here oude also links two different (but maybe related) ideas: “a woman to teach a man” and “a woman to assume authority (exercise the authority of an elder) over a man”.
So there is no textural support in this letter for the idea that there is only one activity described in v.12 and not two.
Putting this all together, we see that Paul’s instruction is that a woman can be taught from Scripture provided she respects (is submissive/obedient to) the teacher and the Scripture being taught. In the family she is to respect her husband and not teach or dominate/rule him. In the church she is to respect the preachers/teachers and the elders and not teach men or lead the church. The husband is to lead the family and men are to be responsible for the teaching and overall leadership (eldership) in the church.
What about when Paul wrote “every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head” (11:5)? Doesn’t this mean that women prophesied in church meetings at Corinth? The subheading of 11:2-16 is “On covering the heads in worship” (NIV). But there is no reference to a church meeting until v.17, which is outside the passage! The focus of this passage is on the need for a head-covering when they prophesised, not on “worship”. And there is no definite reference to a meeting. So from 11:2-16 it is debateable as to whether women prophesised in meetings at Corinth or not. In this case, the best exegesis is to use the clearer example of 14:34 which definitely implies that women didn’t prophesy in meetings when men were present at Corinth.
The principle here is that Christian women not preach/teach to men or lead the church, but respect the men that do this preaching/teaching and leading. They were to be respectful instead of being disruptive. Next Paul gives the reason for this instruction.
Their design (1 Tim. 2:13-14)
“For Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not the one deceived; it was the woman who was deceived and became a sinner”
God’s design for men and women was given in the original creation. He created differences between them. Adam was made first and then Eve. Eve was created for Adam and not vice-versa (1 Cor. 11:9). She was made to be his helper and to be submissive as his wife (Gen. 2:18, 20). She was to live under his provision and protection. As Eve was to follow Adam’s leadership, wives are to follow their husband’s leadership (1 Cor. 11:3). Also, the husband is to provide for and protect his wife, and the wife is to live under this provision and protection. But since the fall into sin, there has been conflict when wives seek to turn this around and rule their husbands.
When Eve acted independently of Adam she was deceived by Satan. The Greek verb exapataó (#1818) means “thoroughly deceived”. The same verb occurs in “Eve was deceived (thoroughly) by the serpent’s cunning (2 Cor. 11:3). She was the first person to fall into sin. Adam also sinned by submitting to Eve instead of leading her. This shows she needs a leader. Paul is saying that wives were designed to have husbands as their leaders. Likewise, women in the church are designed to have male overseers/elders as their leaders. So the overseers/elders need to lead the church and the women and other men need to follow them.
This design for men and women isn’t cultural because it is based on Genesis chapters 2-3 and not on the Jewish culture or Roman culture of that time. The pattern of male leadership and female submission was to be the pattern for the church in Ephesus. And it was consistent with the biblical pattern of male leadership and female submission in marriage.
Furthermore, these roles are not based on any alleged local shortcomings of the women at Ephesus such as a lack of education or the existence of heretical female teachers.
But we may think that this gives women a minor role in the church. Next Paul shows how they can have a great influence in the church and in society.
Their contribution (1 Tim. 2:15)
“But women will be saved through childbearing—if they continue in faith, love and holiness with propriety”
This verse is difficult to interpret, but it is agreed that that it is intended to lessen the impact of v.13-14.
The Greek noun for “childbearing” teknogonia (#5042) means child bearing or the rearing of a family (by synecdoche – a figure of speech in which a term that denotes one thing is used to refer to a related thing). As childbirth doesn’t fit the context, the latter meaning is preferred. Wives have babies and rear them through childhood to adolescence and maturity.
What are they saved from by raising their children? The Greek verb for “saved” sózó (#4982) means save, rescue or deliver. We have seen that Eve was thoroughly deceived and the first person to sin (v.14). By raising godly offspring, mothers are delivered from the shame of Eve leading the fall into sin. In this way they are leading the development of godly men and women. Although this work is done in the home, the fruits impact society and the church. Behind every godly man and woman there is probably a godly woman. For example, Timothy was taught the Scriptures by his mother and grandmother (2 Tim. 1:5; 3:14-15).
This is consistent with young widows being advised to marry, to have children and to manage their homes as the best protection against self-indulgent ungodly living (1 Tim. 5:6, 11-15).
This is a conditional promise. It depends on women having the attitude and testimony described in v.9-10. This means that their appearance indicates godly attitudes and their testimony is vindicated by good works.
Through godly motherhood, women have a great impact on the next generation. This is a major contribution that women can make to society and the church. So their primary role in Ephesus was caring for their children, not leading or teaching the congregation (1 Tim. 5:14-15; Ti. 2:4-5).
A similar explanation (also using synecdoche) is that the faith of Christian women will be preserved if they embrace their God-given female roles and responsibilities (indicated by “childbearing”, which is one of their roles). This is similar to the faith of Timothy’s hearers being preserved if he persisted in godly living and true teaching (1 Tim. 4:16).
The principle here is that Christian women will be rewarded if they obey Paul’s instruction and carry out their God-given female roles and responsibilities, including caring for their children.
What about Galatians 3:28?
“There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus”
Some use this verse to claim that as the gospel eradicates the differences between men and women, there should be no restrictions on women’s ministry in the church. But this verse doesn’t address the roles of men and women in church. It has a different context which is the unity that salvation in Christ brings to a diverse group of people. Race, social status and gender make no difference in terms of salvation (one’s standing before God) and its blessings. In the promised inheritance there is no distinction between male and female. There is now no division in Christ Jesus (also see: 1 Cor. 12:13; Col. 3:11).
But does Galatians 3:28 abolish all sexual distinctions? Can Christians now approve same-sex marriages? No! It doesn’t address these topics and others like husband-wife roles or male-female roles in the local church.
Lessons for us
As 1 Timothy was probably written about AD 64, which is well after the early days of the church, we can generally apply the principles in it to us today without needing much consideration of the changes since then. Also, this is Paul’s final passage on this topic (1 Corinthians was written nine years earlier).
1 Corinthians 14:34
Nine years earlier Paul corrected disorderly meetings at Corinth. The main principle we deduced from this was that women are not to preach or teach if men are present as this is a male role (1 Cor. 14:34). This is a conditional silence as other verbal activities are acceptable. And it is consistent with our findings in 1 Timothy 2:11-12.
These principles for Christian women are:
• To be distinguished by good deeds rather than by their appearance.
• Not drawing attention to themselves by their appearance. Showing an attitude of modesty and self-control by dressing modestly and respectably, not extravagantly.
• Carrying out their God-given female roles and responsibilities, including caring for their children.
• Not preaching/teaching men or leading the church (as elders), and respecting the men that do such preaching/teaching and leading.
These can be difficult to accept because they go against our culture today where: women often draw attention to themselves by what they wear, these principles are deemed to be sexist, contraception reduces the number of children in a family, and child-care and home-duties have low status.
The Head Coach of the Sydney Football Club has been fined $5,000 for breaching the Football Federation of Australia’s Code of Conduct. The coach made comments about refereeing that brought the game into disrepute in the post-match interview after a football match in January 2015. Likewise, breaching God’s code of conduct has an adverse impact on our families and churches.
Do we encourage girls and women to learn God’s truths in Scripture in church, in small groups, or by reading, or studying through Bible College (which can be done online)? Are they using this knowledge to live godly lives and teach children and other women?
Do husbands support their wives’ spiritual roles and responsibilities in the family, church and society? Are women being recognized and praised for their good deeds?
How do we influence women to have an attitude of modesty and self-control? Can this be modelled by godly women?
Do we help girls and women (together with the men who aren’t preachers/teachers) to respect those who preach/teach from the Scriptures? Are those with the gift of preaching/teaching encouraged to teach Scripture to children and women?
Do we help girls and women (together with the men who aren’t elders) to respect the elders who lead our churches? Are those with the gift of leadership encouraged to lead children’s and women’s ministries? Are wives encouraged to respect their husbands?
From an assessment of the text and context of 1 Timothy 2:9-15 we have seen that God had a Code of Conduct for Christian women at Ephesus. Families, the local church, and society would have benefitted when this was followed and suffered when it wasn’t followed. As the principles behind these practices at Ephesus also apply to us today, let’s encourage Christian women to be known by good deeds rather than by their appearance and by their valuable female roles and responsibilities, including respecting their church teachers and leaders.
Written, December 2015
The Greek word paradeisos (Strongs #3857) only occurs in the following three passages of the New Testament. It is an ancient Persian word meaning “enclosure, garden, or park”.
When Jesus was being crucified one of the criminals alongside Him said, “Jesus, remember me when you come into your kingdom” Then Jesus answered him, “Truly I tell you, today you will be with me in paradise” (Lk. 23:42-43).
When Paul described a vision he had 14 years ago, he said “I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago was caught up to the third heaven. Whether it was in the body or out of the body I do not know—God knows. And I know that this man—whether in the body or apart from the body I do not know, but God knows—was caught up to paradise and heard inexpressible things, things that no one is permitted to tell” (2 Cor. 12:2-4).
Jesus concludes His message to the church at Ephesus with, “Whoever has ears, let them hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To the one who is victorious, I will give the right to eat from the tree of life, which is in the paradise of God” (Rev. 2:7).
As Paul says he was “caught up to the third heaven” and “caught up to paradise”, “paradise” is synonymous with “the third heaven”. This is the heaven which is God’s abode (see link). The other ways of using the Greek word for “heaven” in Scripture are the earth’s atmosphere and the universe of stars and galaxies. So Paul had a personal audience with the Lord.
The repentant thief was promised that when he died from crucifixion, his soul and spirit would go to God’s dwelling place. However, according to Thayer’s Greek Lexicon, some Jews thought that in this context “paradise” was the part of Hades which was the abode of the souls of the pious until the resurrection (Lk. 16:23).
The passage in Revelation says that true believers will enjoy eternal life in heaven, just like Adam and Eve enjoyed being in the Garden of Eden before they sinned. Note that it is called “the paradise of God” because God is there.
So the word “paradise” is used in the Bible to describe where God lives. This place is commonly called “heaven”.
Written, January 2015
Also see: The good thief went to “Paradise (Lk. 23:43). Lazarus went to “Abraham’s bosom” (Lk. 16:22NKJV). Are they two different places? Are they intermediate heavens or the real thing? And where do Christians go who die today?