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Posts tagged “fossil

Lots of limestone

Recently I’ve visited limestone caves in Maastricht (in the Netherlands) and Paris (in France). These are man-made tunnels and underground caverns where the rock was mined centuries ago for building purposes.

Maastricht limestone

The North Caves tunnel goes deep below the St Pietersberg hill (Saint Peter’s Mount) at Maastricht. The network of thousands of tunnels is over 80 km (50 miles) long and includes charcoal drawings and inscriptions on the walls. Miners started excavating the mountain some 1,000 years ago, and in recent years open-cut mining has been used as well. This yellowish limestone was used in the Netherlands and Belgium as a traditional building material from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance.

These caves were used as a refuge in wars and when Maastricht was under siege. During World War II, 780 paintings, including Rembrandt’s “Night Watch”, were kept safe in the caves for three years. And the tunnels were used to smuggle Jews to safety during this period.

The temperature inside the caves is 11 0C (53 0F) and the relative humidity is 98%. A generator was used to heat the cavern where the paintings were stored to reduce the relative humidity and protect the fragile paintings.

The caves were originally dug to mine marl, which is a mixture of calcium carbonate and clay. Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock comprised of crystal forms (mostly of calcite and aragonite) of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). It‘s often composed of the skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, foraminifera, and molluscs.

The layer of Maastricht limestone in the Netherlands and Belgium is 30-90 m (100-295 feet) thick. Our guide said it was 70 m (230 feet) thick at Maastricht and that it was part of the chalk layer across northwest Europe, which includes the White Cliffs of Dover.

Paris limestone

The tour of the limestone catacombs (tunnels) beneath Paris includes macabre displays of human bones, which had been relocated from ancient cemeteries between 1780 and 1960. The network of tunnels is more than 250 km (155 miles) long. The light beige limestone quarried from these tunnels from 2000 years ago until the 17th century was used to construct many buildings in Paris.

Limestone was also evident at the Buttes Chaumont Park, which was formerly a gypsum quarry. Gypsum is calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4·2H2O). Quarrying ceased by 1860 and then the area was transformed into a park with a mountain 50 m (164 feet) high, cliffs, a grotto and arches, and an artificial lake.

The limestone of the Paris sedimentary basin covers a large surface area. This valuable building material has been mined from either open cut quarries or underground quarries. The underground mines commenced in the Middle Ages (from AD 1200). In Paris, the limestone was mined from two layers, each about 4 m in thickness. The deeper mines reached a depth of 30 m (100 feet). In the 20th century, open-cut limestone quarries were developed in the Oise region of France, about 40 km north of Paris.

Paris underground mines 1908 400pxA large gypsum deposit at Montmartre in Paris led “calcined gypsum” (roasted gypsum or gypsum plaster) to be commonly known as “plaster of Paris”. Gypsum plaster is produced by heating gypsum to about 150 °C (300 °F). It hardens when moistened and allowed to dry. Plaster is a mixture of gypsum (or lime), water, and sand that hardens on drying and is used for coating walls and ceilings of buildings.

So limestone was generally mined south of the Seine river and gypsum was mined to the north. This was because the gypsum layer was above the limestone layer and the layers were deeper on the northern side where the limestone was below the water table. These sedimentary rock layers were deformed by the Meudon anticline whose axis is aligned west-east, which is roughly parallel to the direction of the Seine river in central Paris.

Limestone buildings

They say that limestone was the first rock to be quarried in human history. Due to the widespread occurrence it was easy to find, and its softness and layered structure meant it was easy to work.

About 10% of all sedimentary rock is limestone. It’s more resistant to erosion than most other sedimentary rock, but less resistant than igneous rock. Limestone is an excellent building material that has been used for many years. It’s relatively easy to cut into blocks or use for more elaborate carving. The ability to carve limestone was developed to a very high level on many cathedrals built in medieval France. The outside layer of the great pyramid of Gaza was also made of limestone. It was a popular building material in the Middle Ages. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone.

Lots of houses, the inner fortification of Maastricht and the Sint-Janskerk (the big red church on the Vrijthof Square) have been built using local limestone.

Many buildings in Paris were constructed from limestone. This includes the light-coloured, 6-7 story high apartment buildings (decorated with balconies and ornaments), Notre Dame, the Louvre Museum, Place de la Concorde, Les Invalides, and the many gothic monuments. Haussmann’s grand renovation of Paris (1853-1870) relied on buildings faced with Paris limestone from the Oise valley north of Paris.

Portland cement is made by heating limestone (calcium carbonate) with other materials (such as clay) to 1,450 °C (2,640 °F) in a kiln. The most common use for Portland cement is to make concrete, which is a composite building material made of aggregate (gravel and sand), cement, and water. Concrete hardens into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. Most concrete is poured with reinforcing materials embedded to provide tensile strength, yielding reinforced concrete. Concrete is one of the most frequently used building materials.

Fossils in limestone

Fossils of dinosaurs, mammals and mosasaurs have been found in Maastricht limestone. The most common fossils are bivalves, corals, sea urchins, and shark teeth. Mosasaurs are very large extinct marine reptiles. The larger mosasaurs reached sizes of 10–15 m (33–49 ft) long. The first mosasaurus (the lizard from the river Meuse) fossil remains were discovered in a limestone quarry at Maastricht on the Meuse in 1764. Soft tissue has been recovered from some mosasaurus fossils. And fossils of a prehistoric mosasaurus and turtle discovered in Maastricht limestone are on display at the Maastricht Natural History Museum.

Many marine fossils (particularly bivalves and gastropods) are present in Paris limestone, including the sea snail Campanile giganteum, the largest gastropod ever found, which can measure up to 70 cm (28 inches) long. And the Buttes Chaumont gypsum quarry yielded mammal fossils, including Palaeotherium, which is like a small horse.

Near Reims, 129 km (80 miles) east-northeast of Paris, there are many marine shells in Paris limestone (which is part of the Paris sedimentary basin) including cephalopods, gastropods (such as the Campaniles giganteum), and tiny seashells, that haven’t fossilized. This has been explained by the homogeneity of the calcified rock and an impermeable clay layer above the limestone. In some places, the shells are stuck together in a tangled lump.

How could a mosasaurus be fossilized? Dead marine creatures often float on water rather than sinking to the bottom. And in both cases they are usually devoured by predators within a short period of time. But what if a mosasaurus was left at the bottom of the ocean to decay? If we assume that the mosasaurus was 1 meter thick, under current rates of deposition, it would take thousands of years to cover the body with sediment. In the meantime, nothing would be left because the body would have decayed (Appendix A). Are similar creatures being fossilized today? No, I don’t think any dolphins are being fossilized today.

As mosasaurus fossils have been found in limestone, they must have been formed under conditions that are not present on earth today. In this case, the present is not the key to the past and the assumption of uniformity is erroneous. Instead, the mosasaurus must have been buried rapidly to slow down the decaying process.

How was limestone formed?

The traditional secular (uniformitarian) explanation is that limestone forms slowly from animal skeletons and shells deposited at the bottom of a sea. For example, it is claimed that the Parisian sedimentary basin was formed when the erosion of mountains and the dislocation of the supercontinent, Pangaea, enabled the sea to deposit some 3,000 meters of sediment over a 300 million-year period (Robin et al., 2014). This is an average deposition rate of 0.01 mm per year (10 mm/kyr).

Following the sedimentation, the rock layers were uplifted and then eroded so that the limestone was either exposed at the surface of the earth, or was close enough to the surface to be accessible by open-cut or underground mining methods.

But the existence of mosasaurus fossils shows the presupposition that the rate of geological processes have been uniform over time is erroneous. When I asked a geologist why they use this assumption, he replied that it’s because otherwise there could be a multitude of scenarios for the rate of geological processes in the past! Clearly the rate of sedimentation when the fossils were buried was significantly greater than the current rate of sedimentation.


Robin et al. (2014) note that the sedimentary rock layers in the Paris region supplied building materials such as: sand for mixing mortar; sandstone for paving stones; clay for bricks, tiles and roofing tiles; limestone for building stone and lime production; and gypsum for plaster. This reminds me that God made the earth to be inhabited – “He [God] who fashioned and made the earth, He founded it; He did not create it to be empty, but formed it to be inhabited” (Isa. 45:18NIV). Although this was a promise that Jerusalem and the towns of Judah would be rebuilt and inhabited after the Babylonian exile (Isa. 44:26, 28), it also reminds us that God has provided all the resources for humanity to thrive on earth. In this post we have seen that sedimentary rock layers can supply building materials. Furthermore, the valuable resources of coal, oil and natural gas can form in sedimentary rock basins.

If gradual sedimentation can’t explain the occurrence of fossils in sedimentary rock (such as limestone), the most likely biblical explanation is that most of them formed during the global flood in the time of Noah. This would have been associated with rapid sedimentation, rapid uplift of mountains and deepening of oceans, and rapid erosion. And all of this would have occurred on a large scale. This is consistent with:
– sedimentary rocks covering most of the Earth’s rocky surface (although they only make up a very small percentage of the planet’s crust), including some mountain tops.
– marine and terrestrial fossils within these rocks, including on some mountain tops.

One implication is that the sedimentary rock layers and the fossils within them, and the topography of the mountains and the oceans formed rapidly over a short period of time, rather than gradually over a long period of time. How do we know this? There is no calendar or clock in the sedimentary layers, the fossils, or the topography of the earth! But there is a clock in the Bible. It says when the flood began – “In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, on the seventeenth day of the second month—on that day all the springs of the great deep burst forth, and the floodgates of the heavens were opened. And rain fell on the earth forty days and forty nights. (Gen. 7:11-12). And it says when the flood ended – “By the first day of the first month of Noah’s six hundred and first year, the water had dried up from the earth. Noah then removed the covering from the ark and saw that the surface of the ground was dry. By the twenty-seventh day of the second month the earth was completely dry” (Gen. 8:13-14).

Another implication is that the formation of sedimentary rock layers and the fossils within them, and the topography of the mountains and oceans of the earth was a unique event. The rate of the formation of these today is insignificant compared to the rate that occurred during the flood (and during the ice age after the flood). How do we know this? God promised Noah, “Never again will all life be destroyed by the waters of a flood; never again will there be a flood to destroy the earth” (Gen. 9:11). We should be reminded of this whenever we see a rainbow (Appendix B).

Another implication is that the sedimentary rock layers and the fossils within them are thousands of years old, and not the millions of years old as is assumed under the assumption of uniformity of geological processes. How do we know this? There is no calendar or clock in the sedimentary layers or the fossils! But there is a calendar in the Bible. The most accurate genealogies (called chronological genealogies) occur near the beginning of time in the Bible (Gen. 5:3-32; 11:10-26).

Another implication is that the order of sedimentary layers and the fossils within them is the order of sedimentation and burial during the flood, and not the order of a hypothetical evolutionary development from simple creatures to more complex creatures. This means that all these creatures were living somewhere on earth at the same time thousands of years ago. Since then some of them have become extinct and the others remain much the same, except for the variations we see within the families of creatures today.


Limestone was mined for building purposes in the Netherlands and in France. These layers of limestone extended across large sedimentary basins. Many of the grand buildings constructed in Paris since the Middle Ages were built or faced with limestone.

Limestone contains marine fossils which can’t be explained by the current rate of sedimentation or by the assumption of uniformity of the rate of geological processes. The most likely biblical explanation for the limestone and the fossils is that most of them formed during the global flood in the time of Noah. So it’s interesting to note that what was a time of punishment for the wickedness of humanity resulted in the provision of many resources for humanity thousands of years later within sedimentary rocks.

This means that:
– Sedimentary rock layers and the fossils within them, and the overall topography of mountains and oceans, formed rapidly over a short period of time, rather than gradually over a long period of time.
– This was a unique event.
– It occurred thousands of years ago, and not millions of years ago.
– The order of sedimentary layers and the fossils within them is the order of sedimentation and burial during the flood, and not the order a hypothetical evolutionary development from simple creatures to more complex creatures.
– The geologic time scale used by geologists and palaeontologists to relate geological strata to time and to describe the timing and relationships of events that have occurred during earth’s history is an example of poor historical science because it’s assumption of uniformity is incorrect.

Appendix A: Is oceanic deposition able to fossilize creatures?

Fossils of marine creatures occur in many sedimentary rocks. The usual uniformitarian explanation given for these is that they were preserved by being covered in sediment while they lived in the ocean. Today the greatest sedimentation rate in the open ocean is said to be 5cm/kyr and that for continental shelves is said to be 50-100 cm/kyr.  Most sedimentation rates are lower than these peak rates. This means that it would take at least 20kyr to cover a 1 meter thick mosasaurus in the open ocean and at least 1-2kyr to cover in a continental shelf.

But how long would a mosasaurus carcass last on the ocean bottom before it disappeared? According to observation, whale carcasses on the ocean floor can disappear quite quickly thanks to the efforts of bone devouring organisms. In many cases, the bones will have disintegrated within a decade.

The same chemical, physical, and micro-organic processes that break down tissues will also cause bones to decompose. If a body is exposed to water then bacteria and fungi will be able to invade that porous network, and seek out the proteins of the collagen within the bones, which causes those bones to break down and eventually crumble to dust!

So oceanic deposition, as it is observed today, is NOT able to fossilize large creatures like a 1 meter thick mosasaurus.

Appendix B: The symbol of God’s promise to all creation

After the flood, the rainbow was a sign of God’s covenant with Noah, all humanity and all creation (nature). Genesis 9:12-17 says:

12 And God said, “This is the sign of the covenant I am making between me and you [Noah] and every living creature with you [all animals], a covenant for all generations to come [all humanity]: 13 I have set my rainbow in the clouds, and it will be the sign of the covenant between me and the earth. 14 Whenever I bring clouds over the earth and the rainbow appears in the clouds, 15 I will remember my covenant between me and you and all living creatures of every kind. Never again will the waters become a flood to destroy all life. 16 Whenever the rainbow appears in the clouds, I will see it and remember the everlasting covenant between God and all living creatures of every kind on the earth.”

17 So God said to Noah, “This [the rainbow] is the sign of the covenant I have established between me and all life on the earth.”


Robin S, Gély J, Viré M (2014), An underground world. The catacombs of Paris, Paris Musées.

Written, September 2019

Evidence of Noah’s flood

Flooded river - Jun 2016 400pxAfter some Australian motorists drowned when their cars were swept away by floodwaters in June 2016, university researchers investigated how much force it takes to wash cars away from the road. A 1 tonne vehicle was moved by water 15 centimeters deep flowing at 3.6 km/hr. It was carried away in 60 centimeters of water. A 2.5 tonne vehicle was moved by 45 centimeters of water and began floating in 95 centimeters of water. The cars were moved so easily partly because even shallow water can be deceptively strong, and partly because modern cars are so air-tight that instead of taking on water they get pushed along by it. Even slow-moving water is powerful because water is heavy: each cubic metre weighs 1 tonne. They concluded that vehicles became vulnerable to moving floodwaters once the depth reached the floor of the vehicle. This is consistent with Queensland advice that “Water deeper than the bottom of your car door is enough to float your vehicle away, or splash the engine and cause it to stall”.

If a shallow river can be so powerful, a global flood would be an enormous catastrophic disaster. If this happened about 4,350 years ago, surely there would be some evidence of it still visible today. This blogpost is a summary of eight main points that were made by Dr Tasman Walker in a presentation on “Evidence of Noah’s flood in Australia”.

What would we expect to find on earth if there was a global flood as described in Genesis chapters 6-8 in the Bible?

Fractures in the earth’s crust

The two main sources of the water for the flood are described as “all the underground waters erupted from the earth, and the rain fell in mighty torrents from the sky” (Gen. 7:11-12NLT). Subterranean water burst from beneath the earth and there was torrential rain for 40 days. The flood waters rose to cover the highest mountains of the pre-flood world by 8 meters (Gen. 7:17-20). By the way, Mt Everest didn’t exist before the flood because there are sedimentary rocks with marine fossils on its summit.

If underground water was erupting from the earth on a global scale you would expect that the earth’s crust would be fractured. Today major fractures are seen in the earth’s crust around the edges of the continental plates. When these continental tectonic plates move against each other there are earthquakes and volcanic activity. Such geological activity around the Pacific Ocean is called the “ring of fire”.

So we would expect to find fractures in the earth’s crust and we do. These fractures are evidence of Noah’s flood.

Billions of dead things

If a catastrophic flood covered the earth for six months you would expect to find billions of dead things all over the earth. “Everything (except those on the ark) that breathed and lived on dry land died” (Gen. 7:22NLT). Because such a flood would transport huge amounts of sediment across the earth, most of the creatures that drowned would be buried in the sediments. Because such a flood would also transport huge amounts of sediment into the ocean and cause a depletion in oxygen levels, many marine creatures would die and be buried as well.

Queensland dinosaurs 400pxAt Winton in Queensland, there are many well-preserved fossils of dinosaurs and marine creatures. Dinosaur fossils have also been found at Muttaburra (Queensland). These fossil-bearing sediments extend across the Great Artesian Basin into New South Wales, South Australia, and the Northern Territory, while marine fossils are found in other parts of Central Australia.

So we would expect to find billions of dead things (fossils) in sedimentary rocks and we do. These fossils are evidence of Noah’s flood.

Evidence of rapid burial

If a catastrophic flood covered the earth for six months you would expect to find evidence of rapid burial.

At Richmond in Queensland an exceptionally well-preserved marine reptile fossil was discovered in 1990. It’s a plesiosaur that’s over 4 meters long. In order to be preserved so well it must have been buried rapidly. Fossils of land animals are also found in this region, such as the ankylosaur (an armored dinosaur).

So we would expect to find evidence of rapid burial and we do. These fossils of creatures that were buried rapidly are evidence of Noah’s flood.

Sediment covering huge areas

Great artesian basin 400pxIf a catastrophic flood covered the earth for six months you would expect to find evidence of sediment covering huge areas.

Geologists find that layers of sedimentary rocks extend across large areas called sedimentary basins. They can contain coal, oil and gas that’s used as fossil fuels. For example, the Great Artesian Basin and the Sydney Basin. There are also examples in other continents. And there are also offshore sedimentary basins on the continental shelf of countries around the world.

So we would expect to find evidence of sediment covering huge areas and we do. These layers of sedimentary rock across huge areas are evidence of Noah’s flood.

Evidence of raging waters

If a catastrophic flood covered the earth for six months you would expect to find evidence of raging waters. As these flood waters would have been highly energetic, they would have transported material along with the flow.

3 sisters 400pxThe Three Sisters rock formation at Katoomba is composed of sandstone, which was laid down by water. This layer extends across the Sydney sedimentary basin. An examination of the sedimentary layers evident in road cuttings shows layers 1-2 meters thick, which indicates that a lot a water was involved in transporting and depositing this sediment. This water must have been continually rising (to enable continual deposition). There are many cross-beds that go at an angle across the strata. They are formed when the sediment layer builds sideways.

Uluru 400pxUluru (Ayers Rock) in the Northern Territory is made of sandstone and the layers have been tipped up so they are almost vertical. These strata are visible as parallel lines on Uluru. This shows that there hasn’t been any significant erosion between the deposition of the strata. So there was rapid deposition – one layer was laid upon the other quite quickly. When we look at a geological cross-section through Uluru it is evident that a lot of sandstone has been eroded from above Uluru. The grains that comprise Uluru are angular, poorly sorted (a large range of particle sizes) and well-preserved (not weathered) which is consistent with rapid deposition.

Olgas 400pxKata Tjuta (the Olgas) is a group of large, domed rock formations 25km west of Uluru. They are comprised of large boulders (30-50cm in size). These all face in a similar direction, which is the direction of the water flow that transported them to this site. They indicate highly energetic flood waters.

So we would expect to find evidence of raging waters (which transport and deposit lots of sediment) and we do. These cross-beds, parallel sedimentary strata and boulders are evidence of Noah’s flood.

Evidence of massive erosion

If a catastrophic flood covered the earth for six months you would expect to find evidence of massive erosion. After the flood waters peaked and subsided, they would have flowed off the continents and eroded material away as they flowed back into the ocean.

When you stand at Echo Point overlooking the Three Sisters, you see that Jamison valley is cut into a flat plateau. How did it get so flat? As the floodwaters moved across the continent, they eroded the surface flat. That’s how plateaus formed all around Australia and around the world. Jamison valley is much larger than any valley caused by Kedumba River that flows through it (the same is true for the Grand Canyon in USA). Geomorphologists call these overfit valleys – the valley is too big for the river. How did it get to be such a large valley? The valley was carved by a lot of water and not by the current river. As the floodwaters subsided, when hills became exposed, the water carved out large valleys transporting the sediment out of the area.

This is also evident at Carnarvon Gorge in Queensland at the intersection of the Great Artesian Basin and the Bowen Basin. A large valley has been cut into a sandstone plateau that’s capped by basalt. As material has been eroded away, these sedimentary layers originally covered a much larger area.

As a result of such erosion, rivers can flow through mountain ranges rather than around them. For example, the Heavitree Gap in the MacDonnell Ranges near Alice Springs. How did that happen? Many explanations have been proposed, but none of them work. As the floodwaters subsided, the higher parts of the ridge become exposed and the water flows between the gap between them. As the waters continue to drop, they continue to erode through this gap until when the water has all subsided the gap remains and a river flows through this gap today. It’s called an air gap if it doesn’t go down to the level of the adjacent surface.

So we would expect to find evidence of massive erosion and we do. These large overfit valleys are evidence of Noah’s flood.

Evidence of youthfulness

If a catastrophic flood covered the earth for six months about 4,350 years ago, you would expect to find evidence of youthfulness.

At Kata Tjuta there are a few boulders lying around, but not many. And there is a small apron around it, but not a large one as if it had been eroding for millions of years. And there’s very little debris around the base of Uluru or Kata Tjuta. This indicates that it was eroded recently.

So we would expect to find evidence of youthfulness and we do. The lack of erosional debris is evidence of Noah’s flood.

Worldwide memories of the flood

All of the people of the earth are descendants of the eight people on Noah’s ark. As the global flood occurred about 4,350 years ago, you would expect to find memories of Noah’s flood in the different people groups around the world.

Cultures around the world have flood legends (or stories). For example, the Bundaba Flood Story of the Aboriginals at Broome is given in the appendix. Common features in the stories are that there was a moral cause, people were drowned, there were people saved in a boat, and there was a bird.

So we would expect to find worldwide memories of the flood and we do. These flood stories are evidence of Noah’s flood.


There’s plenty of evidence in Australia of Noah’s flood. Evidence of eight aspects of Noah’s flood show that what we observe is consistent with what the Bible says. This flood is a key to connecting the Bible to the world around us. It explains the sedimentary rocks and the fossils. And it washes away the millions of years that are assumed by evolutionists.

It also helps us understand the world. It makes sense of biblical creation. Death and suffering came after Adam and Eve and not before them because they were a consequence of sin. Whereas according to the idea of evolution, death and suffering over millions of years brought about our existence.

Questions and answers

What is rapid burial?
When animals and fish die today they disintegrate and are recycled. They aren’t fossilized. So, how were the fossils preserved? If they are buried quickly it stops them being scavenged and it affects how bacteria destroys animal’s bodies. So rapid burial is necessary to produce fossils.

What about continental drift?
Like evolutionists, creationists fit the evidence into their world view. There is a creationist model of how the continents were all together before the flood and they broke apart during the flood (catastrophic plate tectonics). The earth’s mantle (beneath the earth’s crust) can suddenly lose its strength under high temperature and high pressure. So the continental movement could have happened very quickly (continental sprint) during Noah’s flood. In the second half of the flood the ocean basins sank and the continents rose: “Mountains rose and valleys sank to the levels you decreed” (Ps. 104:8NLT).

What does “the earth was divided” in the time of Peleg mean (Gen. 10:25)?
This is just before the tower of Babel when God divided the people into different language groups and they dispersed across the earth (Gen. 11:1-9). This is what we believe it means. It couldn’t be the separation of the continents because if it happened a few hundred years after the flood that would be a huge catastrophe and many people would perish and there is no evidence of this in Scripture.

When was Mt Everest formed?
The earth’s crust moved during the flood. The mountain ranges like Mt Everest were elevated towards the end of the flood. The mountians we see today rose up at this time. The shapes of the mountains were carved by the waters of the flood (and any post-flood ice).

Do we know how high the mountains were before the flood?
No. We know there were mountains before the Flood because the Bible speaks of them (Gen. 7:19-20). But we don’t know how high they were. Some creation geologists speculate that they weren’t as high as those today.

What about the ice age?
It happened after the flood. The flood is the only thing that explains the ice age. It was due to warm waters after the flood caused by the addition of hot subterranean water and by heat from volcanic activity. And large amounts of volcanic dust and aerosols in the atmosphere would have reflected solar radiation back into space causing low atmospheric temperatures. Warm oceans evaporate water, which then moves over the land. Cold air over the continents results in this water precipitating as snow. And the snow accumulates forming ice. Because the ice was not fully melted the following summer, the ice built up from year to year. It has been estimated that the ice accumulated for 500 years after the flood and then retreated to where it is today over another 200 years. But evolutionists don’t have an adequate explanation for the ice age.

What about global warming?
Climatic modelers try to include the ice age, but they don’t include Noah’s flood. They think that the earth’s atmosphere is unstable and a little change will tip it over the edge. Whereas the earth’s climate is very stable – after the huge climatic disturbance of the global flood, it took about 700 years to come back to equilibrium.

What about the decrease in longevity?
Before the flood people typically lived over 900 years. After the flood this decreased exponentially towards 100 years (David) and then 70 years. It was probably a genetic change and not an environmental one because after the flood Noah lived 350 years (Gen. 9:28) and Shem lived 500 years.

What about the Behemoth described in Job 40?
We believe it was a brachiosaur (sauropod) dinosaur. The size of its tail is one of the reasons. We believe that dinosaurs and people lived together. They were called dragons and other names because “dinosaur” is a modern name.

Appendix: The Bundaba Flood Story

Long, long ago there was a great flood. It happened because some children found the “winking” owl and plucked out all its feathers. The bird flew without wings, into the heavens and showed himself to Ngowungu, the Great Father. Ngowungu became very angry and decided to drown the people.

Later the people saw a small cloud rising which grew bigger and bigger till it spread all over the sky. The thunder began to roll and crash and the people were greatly afraid. With the rain and thunder was a terrible wind which broke great limbs off trees and rooted up others. During this terrible storm there was a noise above the awful crashes of thunder. This noise was coming from the north. The salt water, the sea, came pouring over the ranges from the north. The flood rose higher and higher till all the land was covered except the tops of two or three mountains.

A bird with a leaf in its mouth flew in front of them showing them the way to Mt. Broome. From further west a man and his wives with a dog were battling their way in a canoe when a bird with a leaf in its mouth flew in front of them showing them the way to Mt. Broome. They eventually reached Mt. Broome and landed there where some other survivors were.

Then Djabalgari, the great left-handed man incised his little finger and let the blood trickle down into the flood waters. The waters began to go down and eventually disappeared off the country. All other people were drowned.


This blogpost was sourced from a presentation by Dr Tas Walker (a geologist with Creation Ministries International) on “Evidence of Noah’s flood in Australia”.

Written, July 2016

Also see: Flood stories: Fact or fiction?
Noah: Fact or fiction?
Evidence of Noah’s flood
Visiting Noah’s ark
Why was Noah’s family saved while the rest died in the flood?

Dinosaurs in the Bible?

Dinosaurs capture the imag­ination of both young and old. They are big, fast, powerful, and sometimes deadly. These mysteries of the ancient world have entertained us all the way from the old Flint-stones cartoon series (currently being revived as a movie), to Bar­ney, the current children’s TV favorite, to Jurassic Park, the block buster movie of a few years ago. But don’t let the current dinosaur-mania, and the idea of evolution that seems to undergird it, either undermine your faith in the God of the Bible or brainwash your children.

What are dinosaurs?

The word “dinosaur’ was coined in 1841 by Sir Richard Owen, who studied the bones of the Igua­nadon and the Megalosaurus. He named this new order of animal the “dinosaur” which means “ter­rible, huge lizard.” The bones studied were fossils of creatures that lived in the past. A fossil is formed when minerals replace parts of the body and turn it into rock. Dinosaurs were amazing creatures. When did they live? What happened to them?

Any facts that we have con­cerning dinosaurs are gathered from fossil remains found in sedimentary rocks. When we consider fossils, we are dealing with evi­dence of past events, much like stu­dents of ancient history or forensic science do. We seek likely explana­tions of the past, which can be tested, but not proven conclusively. We need a witness, just like in a court case. And we have one, God, who was there in the beginning! He is the witness who knows everything, is reliable and has given us the Bible. In the book of Job, He asks, “Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundations?” (Job 38:4 NIV).

Dinosaurs in Genesis

The King James Version of the Bible was translated in 1611, over 200 years before the word “dinosaur” was coined. For this reason, it does not occur specifically in the Bible, and the influence of evolution probably stopped translators from using it in more modern transla­tions today. There are five events recorded in the Bible that have affected every person on the plan­et: the Creation, the Fall, the Flood, the tower of Babel, and the life of Jesus Christ. Three of these shed light on the subject of dinosaurs.

The Creation: Dinosaurs were created on the sixth day with all the other land animals. Adam was also created then, so they lived together. This wasn’t a problem, as they were all plant eaters. Adam and Eve “ruled” over them and Adam named them. God saw that it was “very good” – the Garden of Eden was paradise on earth for both man and dinosaurs! (Gen. 1:25-30; 2:19,20).

The Fall: Adam and Eve’s rebel­lion against God resulted in a dif­ferent world. After their sin, several things came in: suffering, conflict, decay and death. Romans 5:12 says, “Just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, in this way death came to all men, because all sinned.” Death affected all creation. Romans 8:21-22 says that all creation is wait­ing to be “liberated from its bondage to decay … We know that the whole of creation has been groaning as in the pains of child­birth up to the present time.”

The Flood: The earth was full of violence: “The Lord saw how great man’s wickedness had become.” He was grieved, and decided to “wipe … from the face of the earth – men and animals, and creatures that move along the ground” (Gen. 6:6-7). This state­ment includes dinosaurs, as does Genesis 6:19-21: “Bring into the ark … two of every kind … of ani­mal and of every kind of creature that moves along the ground … to be kept alive.”

Then Genesis 7:11 says that “all springs of the great deep burst forth and the floodgates of heaven were opened.” This would have led to erosion and the transport of sediments. It was a worldwide flood, not just a regional one. The ark was needed to save Noah’s family and the animals that were in the ark with him. Except for those in the ark, God destroyed the whole world as punishment for man’s sin and the evil that resulted from it. The flood was a catastrophe involving tremendous amounts of water and upheavals of the earth.

What would we expect to find after the flood? Billions of dead things buried in rock layers, laid down by water, all over the earth. And what do we find? Billions of dead things, buried in rock layers, laid down by water, all over the earth! Sedimentary rock – such as sandstone (from sand), shale (from mud and clay), and con­glomerate (a mixture of both) – covers three quarters of the earth. Fossils required a quick burial –resulting from something such as a catastrophic flood – in mud or sand that turned into rock. These fossil graveyards are everywhere. They provide us with fossil fuels such as oil – which supplies our world’s entire petro-chemical industry, and coal – a fossil fuel used Worldwide for heat, the pro­duction of electricity and many industrial uses.

Dinosaurs in Job

Except for Genesis 1-11, Job is the oldest book in the Bible. Its main character probably lived about 2,000 BC – after the flood, but before large cities were built again. The book shows that Job’s faith was very strong, despite the suffering he went through. In Chapters 38-42, Job is made to realize the vastness of God’s power as revealed in His creation of the physical and biological world. This realization made Job feel insignificant enough to say, “I know that you can do anything, and that no one can stop you” (Job 42:2). We don’t control the uni­verse – God does. The climax of God’s response to Job is a descrip­tion of the two largest creatures He had created – the behemoth and the leviathan.

The behemoth (Job 40:15-24) was the greatest of land animals. It ate plants; it was strong, powerful, unbothered by raging rivers, and beyond being captured. The leviathan (Job 41), another gigantic beast, lived in the water. It was a creature without fear; it terrified the mighty; it couldn’t be subdued; and the mere sight of it was over­powering. It had fearsome teeth, a flaming mouth and smoking nos­trils. The leviathan is referred to as a dragon in the King James Version and a sea monster in the New Inter­national Version (Isa. 27:1).

Some say these creatures are mythical. But if they are, also referred to in the same passage are a lion, horse, ostrich and eagle, which are not mythical. Some say they are just other words for present day animals such as the hippopota­mus, the elephant and the crocodile. If that’s the case, did the Jews have special words for the first two, but not the third? Or are they the now extinct Bra­chiosaurus and the Plesiosaurus dinosaurs?

Dinosaurs surely would have shown God’s power in creation! But then, any creature with life is amazing and demonstrates God’s creative power — even the smallest of things, such as the DNA mole­cule which carries the genetic code. The dinosaur probably became extinct after the flood, because of the much harsher, drier climate and the ice age; because of less vegetation; and possibly because of the impact of humans who continue to cause other ani­mals to become extinct.

Dinosaurs in evolution

Evolutionary ideas about dino­saurs began at the beginning of the last century with Hutton (1795) and Lyell (1830), who taught that “the present is the key to the past.” They attempted to explain the past by present processes alone. So fossils were interpreted in terms of geologic ages, which are based on theoreti­cal “index fossils” and an “evolu­tionary tree.” They say that dinosaurs lived from 200-70 mil­lion years ago inthe Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous Ages. The so-called evolutionary tree pre­sents the idea that all life has evolved by natural processes of development alone over millions of years – from molecules to man.

This idea of an evolutionary tree is held by most scientists. It is presented as a fact, not as a theory, which it is, since it can’t be proven. It is taught in schools, uni­versities, museums and the media. Thus everyone is indoctri­nated. But the Bible says they are wrong. And 2 Peter-3:3-7 says the exact opposite of what evolution­ists teach: “In the last days scoffers will come … But they deliberately forget that long ago by God’s word … the earth was formed … By water also the world … was deluged and destroyed … The present heavens and earth are reserved for fire.”

The scoffers don’t believe that God created the world. They see no need for a Creator God, so there is no authority (Jud. 21:25). They say there are no moral absolutes, no sin, and, therefore, no need for a Savior! They do not believe that God destroyed the whole world by water. They do not believe that God will judge the world by fire. With no author­ity and no sin, there is no judg­ment or accountability – past, pre­sent or future.

Evolution attacks the very foun­dation of the Christian faith. It says that suffering and death existed from the beginning, before Adam and Eve ever sinned. But God is not the source of suffering and death, and He would never refer to a creation based on evolutionary theories as “good.” God’s purpose was the creation and redemption (or rescue) of mankind, not mil­lions of years of evolution! 1 Timo­thy 6:20-21 says such “opposing ideas of what is falsely called knowledge” cause some to “have wandered from the faith.” Don’t let this happen to you!

You decide

Dinosaurs were massive examples of God’s creation, but now they are dead and gone from the face of the earth, and we see them only as fossils. As such, they are merely symbols of God’s judgment of sin. The real examples of God’s judg­ment on the sin and wickedness of mankind are: the destruction caused by the global flood (be reminded of this every time you see sedimentary rock layers); the burning sulfur rained on Sodom and Gomorrah as God’s judgment on evil (verified by fossil remains); the coming tribulation period; and the coming final judgment and destruction by fire (both prophe­sied in the Bible).

Romans 6:23 is God’s provision for us: “For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eter­nal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.” Don’t let dinosaurmania and the idea of evolution either under­mine your faith in the God of the Bible or brainwash your children. Remember that Jurassic Park is just a fictitious, money-making movie with a comment on genetic engi­neering. The Bible tells the real story about the creation, existence and extinction of dinosaurs.

Published, December 1995

Also see: Year of the dragon